Dual Language Learners in State Early Learning Guidelines and Standards

References to Dual Language Learners (DLLs) in State Early Childhood Guidelines and Standards

This table includes portions of text from each state's and territory's guidelines or standards that refer to supporting dual language learners. Many states have more than one document that addresses early learning. Some of these are supporting and/or complementary documents to their standards.

State guidelines, standards and frameworks vary in format and content. Some include benchmarks and indicators as well as examples of what each might look like for children, and some have strategies caregivers might use in working with DLLs. Titles for state guidelines or standards may include: guidelines, framework, standards, foundations, and/or indicators.

In order to view complete documents and references to DLLs in context, select a state or region below and click on the hyperlinked titles. In some cases the hyperlinks take you directly to the document and in other cases to a webpage where direct links are provided.

Alabama

Alabama Early Learning Guidelines: Birth to Five Years [PDF, 1MB]

Guidelines: 0-5
Language and Literacy Development Domain
References importance of child's identification with/use of home language and of caregiver's provision of opportunities for child to speak/write in home language.

Caregiver-Child Relationship: Experiences/Language
"Caregivers respond in a positive manner to individual children's communication attempts. The caregiver understands and adapts the language interactions to include cultural and linguistic differences."

  • Diversity "Caregivers and programs support, appreciate, and honor cultural diversity, including family and home experiences, language, beliefs, values, and patterns of interaction."

Alaska

State of Alaska Early Learning Guidelines [PDF, 3MB]

Guidelines: 0-5
Indicators and strategies divided by 0-18 months, 18-36 months, 36-60 months, 60 months-K entries.

Introduction: Communication, Language and Literacy
"The home language is the first language learned and the primary language used at home. Research shows that children who are strong in their home language will be able to develop fluency in speaking and reading a second language such as English...The ability to communicate in more than one language supports children's cognitive flexibility and an awareness of their own cognitive processes."

Goal 74 on English Language Learners/Dual Language Acquisition under Communication, Language, and Literacy
Children demonstrate competency in home language while acquiring beginning proficiency in English.

  • Birth to 18 months "Support child's use of home language by talking to, reading, and singing in the home language."
  • 18 to 36 months "Have print materials available in both the home language and English."
  • 36 to 60 months "Help child develop reasoning skills through use of home language."

Arizona

Arizona's Infant and Toddler Developmental Guidelines [0-3], 1st Edition [PDF, 4MB]

4.0 Individual Differences
"The values and practices of family, culture and community influence individual child outcomes. Experiences of infants and toddlers in learning the language and behav¬iors of their family must be supported by other early care and education settings where young children spend time. Meaningful caregiver strategies acknowledge and incorporate cultural practices and individual developmental differences."

11.0 Language Development and Communication: Domain III Introduction
"Infants and toddlers learn the languages of their families, cultures and communities through the natural interaction of caregiving and everyday experiences."

  • Examples of behaviors...
    Toddler "uses home language with a vocabulary of 50 or more words or signs and sometimes uses two- or three-word sentences."

Arizona Early Learning Standards [3-5], 3rd Edition [PDF, 6MB] (2013)

Introduction
Guiding Principles
"Optimal learning occurs in environments where the adult is respectful of the child, the family, the language, the culture, and the community."

Inclusive Practices
English Language Learners: "All children have acquired knowledge as a result of the language used in their home since birth. The richer the home language and background experiences, the easier it is for children to learn a second language. Each child's progress in learning English needs to be respected and viewed as acceptable, logical, and part of the ongoing process of learning any new skill. The language skills needed for young English language learners to become proficient in English are fully embedded in the...Standards."

  • The AZ Early Learning Standards are "appropriate for all children regardless of background, language and diverse needs."

Language and Literacy Standard: Overview
"The preschool environment is respectful and supportive of children's cultural heritages and home languages while encouraging English language acquisition."

Social Studies Standard: Community
"Recognizes that places where people live are made up of individuals from different cultures and who speak different languages."

Resources
There is an article from the Arizona Department of Education with information on English language learners and teacher strategies including: Oral Communication, Vocabulary Development, Learning Environment, and Book Use. Also included: an NAEYC position statement, Responding to Linguistic and Cultural Diversity: Recommendations for Effective Early Childhood Education, as well as websites on multicultural education.

Program Guidelines for High Quality Early Education: Birth Through Kindergarten [0-6], 3rd Edition [PDF, 2MB]

3.0 Program Practices: Curriculum, Environment and Child Assessment
"Appropriate and on-going assessment methods are essential if programs are to provide curriculum and experiences that are age and developmentally appropriate, as well as culturally sensitive. Assessment will address all areas of learning, meet the needs of the individual students, and will include a variety of methods and processes."

Guideline 3.2
"Each program uses a developmentally appropriate early education curriculum (intentionally planned activities aligned with goals for children's knowledge and skills) to support the development of the whole child."

  • "The curriculum is sufficiently broad and open-ended so teachers can address the strengths and learning needs of children with varying levels of maturity and ability and can be adapted or modified to support children with special needs as well as English Language Learners."

4.0 Linguistic and Cultural Integration
"Language, culture and identity are integral parts of children's lives. Demonstrating respect for culture and language sets the stage for establishing a caring community of learners. High quality early education programs develop positive relationships with children and their families by using culturally responsive practices which include: showing acceptance of and respect for all; integrating languages and cultures into the on-going experiences of the program; and finding ways to reach out to and communicate with everyone."

Guideline 4.1: "Linguistic and cultural needs are met by emphasizing strategies for integrating multi-cultural and anti-bias themes into all curricular areas."

  1. Language role models are provided for children and parents who speak languages other than, or in addition to, English, whenever possible. English role models are provided for children.
  2. All written communication (notes/newsletters) is translated, either orally or in writing, into the languages of the families enrolled, whenever possible.
  3. Parent workshops, meetings, and discussions include culturally relevant information and are conducted with translation provided, whenever possible.
  4. Information and conversation is provided in both the children's primary language and in English, whenever possible.
  5. Program staff partner with families to select and incorporate a variety of materials, such as books, tapes, and CDs, that reflect the cultures and languages of the children present without stereotyping.
  6. The languages, cultures, traditions, and values of the children and community are respected and reflected in the environment and materials available.
  7. Materials and equipment in the early education environment reflect the diversity of people of various races, cultures, ages, and abilities. Stereotypic images are avoided.
  8. Sensitivity to and acceptance of each child's cultural heritage or special needs are demonstrated. Stereotypes based on gender, race, culture, age, or ability are discussed as situations occur naturally in the environment.
  9. Parents, volunteers, and community visitors are invited into the early childhood environment to share their backgrounds, skills, stories, celebrations, and foods as a way to enhance awareness, acceptance, and understanding of other cultures.
  10. Program staff have knowledge of second language acquisition and instructional strategies to support English language acquisition as demonstrated by giving sufficient time for children to understand and respond, by giving nonverbal cues, and by making explicit efforts to talk often to children who are learning English.

Family Engagement and Support
"Ideas for specific, developmentally appropriate experiences related to individual children's needs, including those appropriate for children with disabilities or for whom English is not their primary language, are shared with families regularly."

Arkansas

Arkansas Early Childhood Education Framework Handbook for Three and Four Year Old Children [PDF, 2MB]

Framework Handbook: 3-4
Introduction
"Some of the suggested strategies/activities are specific to children who are learning English as a second language (ESL), children who have limited English proficiency (LEP), and children with special needs. However, it may be necessary to make additional modifications based on the needs of the children enrolled in a particular program."

Social/Emotional Strand: 1.2 Demonstrates Independence
"For LEP [limited English proficient] or ESL children, learn and use words from the child's home language for personal care needs such as toileting."

Cognitive/Intellectual Learning Strand: 3.28 Shows Pride
"Learn key words and phrases of the child's home language and integrate them into daily and group-time routines such as greeting, singing, story time, and transitions. Use them throughout the day one-on-one with the child."

Language Strand: 5.3 Expands Vocabulary
Several strategies for LEP/ESL children such as "Include songs from the child's home language."

American Samoa

NA

California

Preschool English Learners: Principles and Practices to Promote Language, Literacy, and Learning: A Resource Guide, 2nd Edition [PDF, 8MB] (2009)

Principles and Practices: Preschool
Also has companion DVD.
Chapters include:

  • Preschool English Learners, Their Families and Their Communities
  • Connecting First and Second Languages
  • Paths to Bilingualism
  • Stages and Strategies in Second-Language Acquisition
  • Code Switching and Language Loss
  • English Learners with Disabilities or Other Special Needs
  • Recommended Early Literacy Practices

California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations [0-3] [PDF, 3MB] (2009)

Introduction
"Connections with children's early cultural and linguistic experiences are critically important for their social-emotional well-being, the development of their identity, and learning."

Guiding Principles
"1. The family and its culture and language play a central role in early learning and development."

Language Development: Receptive Language
"Infants excel at detecting patterns in spoken language...Infants improve in their ability to discriminate the sounds characteristic of their native language while losing their abilities to discriminate some sounds characteristic of languages other than their native language...From early infancy young children use a mental filter to orient, with greater efficiency and accuracy, to the speech sounds characteristic of their native language. This strategy enables infants to identify the phonemic units most useful to them in their native language and serves as a building block to later word acquisition..."

Infant/Toddler Learning and Development: Program Guidelines [0-3] [PDF, 8MB] (2006)

Chapter 5: Guidelines for Operating Infant/Toddler Programs

  • 5.2 Programs monitor the development of individual infants and toddlers
    "Conduct regular developmental screenings with each child, taking into account any cultural or linguistic limitations of the screening tool."
  • 6.1 Programs hire well-qualified, representative staff members
    "Hire a diverse staff, including teachers who are representative of the cultures, languages, and ethnicities of the families and children in the program."

Chapter 6: Guidelines for Facilitating Learning and Development with Infants and Toddlers
[7.6] Programs and teachers facilitate language and communication development and learning
"Early experiences with communication lay the foundation for learning language and are important first steps in pre-literacy development. For infants whose language at home is different from the language their teachers speak, supporting the development of both languages is critically important. Having competence in the home language assists children in identity development and communication with family members. In addition, children who gain mastery in two languages during the early childhood years have a strong basis for learning to read in elementary school. Their rich understanding of language through learning English and their home language contributes to their continued literacy development as they grow older.

Programs:

  • "Hire teachers who speak the children's home language, if possible."
  • "Provide numerous and varied opportunities for children whose home language is different from English to experience their home language in the care setting."
  • "Tapes and books in the child's home language also support bilingual development."

Teachers:

  • "Respond positively to children when they communicate in their home language."
  • "Encourage children whose language at home is different from English to continue developing their home language."

Appendix D
Section I: Ethical Responsibilities to Children
I-1.10. "To ensure that each child's culture, language, ethnicity, and family structure are recognized and valued in the program."
I-1.11. "To provide all children with experiences in a language that they know, as well as support children in maintaining the use of their home language and in learning English."

Includes links to DRDP-R.

Desired Results Developmental Profile – Preschool© (DRDP-PS) [PDF, 6MB] (2010)

Desired Results Developmental Profile—Preschool© (2010): Instruction Page – Preschool Instrument (Age 3 to kindergarten)
Instructions for Using the Language and Literacy Development (LLD) and English Language Development (ELD) Measures

Completing the LLD and ELD Measures - "Young children who are acquiring both the language of their family as well as the language of the larger community are dual language learners."

Completing the DRDP© Measures for Children from Homes Where Languages Other Than English Are the Primary Languages Spoken
"For children who are dual language learners, complete both the LLD and ELD measures."

  • "Children who are dual language learners may demonstrate mastery of developmental levels in their home language, in English, or in both."
  • "Children who are dual language learners will vary substantially in their acquisition of English language competencies, depending on factors, such as the degree of exposure to English, level of support provided in their home language, and their motivation to acquire English."

Colorado

Colorado Quality Standards for Early Childhood Care and Education Services (2008)

A. Interactions among Staff and Children
A-3b.

  • "Staff respect a child's method and style of communication, which could include...forms of non-verbal language, and native language."

C. Family-Staff Partnership
C-1a.

  • "Information for parents is provided in lay terms, in the family's native language, and through a variety of communication methods."
  • "Written information is provided, in the family's native language..."

E. Administration
E-15c.

  • "Orient the child and family to the new setting in a supportive way and in the family's native language."

F. Staffing Patterns has references to sign language, assistive technology, and native language.
F-5

  • "Every effort is made to have at least one adult available in the program to communicate in the family's native language when one child speaks a language different than the rest of the children."

References to native language are elsewhere as well, but no separate section on Dual Language Learners.

Colorado Early Learning & Development Guidelines [0-8] [PDF, 1MB] (2008)

Introduction
"The Colorado Early Learning and Development Guidelines

  • [R]ecognize and are responsive to variations in cultures, languages, and abilities;

"Also of importance to the Guidelines is that they acknowledge and are responsive to variations in culture, languages, and abilities...To address this, the Guidelines include examples and resources that address the particular requirements of children for whom English is a second language..."

Birth to Age 3:
Language & Literacy Development: "Babies who are spoken to in more than one language follow the same developmental trajectory for both languages as do monolingual children. Learning two or more languages at the same time does not lead to cognitive delays; in fact, bilingual children have been shown to be more advanced than their monolingual counterparts in some areas such as cognitive development and attention control."

Indicators, Examples and Suggested Supports:
Language & Literacy Development

  1. Receptive Language
    4-8 months: "Adults may...learn words and songs from the infant's primary language."
    9-18 months: "Adults may...recognize and support the older infant's learning of her home language and culture."
    19-36 months: [Adults may...] "state simple requests in English and the home language and acknowledge the toddler's responses and actions."
  2. Expressive Language
    19 – 36 months: "Toddlers may...communicate in a way that is understandable to most adults who speak the same language they do. Toddlers may...demonstrate the ability to follow some grammatical rules of the home language."
    19-36 months: "Adults may...recognize that children who are English language learners may mix words from different languages in the same sentence; repeat what the toddler says using words all in the same language. Adults may...support the toddler's development and use of their home language by including books and tapes in the language in the listening area and learning a few phrases in the language to use with the toddler."
  3. Communication Skills and Knowledge
    9-18 months: "Adults may...immerse the older infant in a language-rich environment, including her primary language."
  4. Interest in Print
    19-36 months: "Adults may...read books with rich, descriptive pictures and vocabulary, including books in the toddler's home language."

Cognitive Development

  1. Number Sense
    19-36 months: "Adults may...use number words from the toddler's first language."

Ages 3-5:
Introduction
"The Guidelines include examples and supports that reflect the unique learning needs of children with learning challenges and children whose home language is not English. English language learners are also the focus for the domain English Language Development."

Social & Emotional Development
"Children who are English language learners should be allowed to express their emotions and relationships in their home language."

English Language Development
"[This] domain describes skills for children who are English language learners (ELL). Similar to those acquiring a first language, children who are learning English as a second language understand more English initially than they can produce. This domain includes children's receptive skills, or their ability to understand spoken English, and includes children's expressive skills, or their ability to speak English. The indicators and examples describe a variety of the types of skills children may exhibit over time as they acquire English. As children gradually learn more English, they will be able to express themselves in English more often. The English Language Development domain also describes the types of literacy activities that support ELL students' language acquisition. However, children should also continue to develop the ability to communicate effectively in their home language because such skills provide a foundation for learning English."

Indicators, Examples and Suggested Supports

  1. Receptive English Language Skills
  2. Expressive English Language Skills
  3. Engagement in English Literacy Activities

Connecticut

Connecticut's Guidelines for the Development of Infant & Toddler Early Learning [PDF, 7MB]

The Progression of Language Development:
Supporting Children Who Experience More than One Language

  • "Second language acquisition occurs through either:
    Simultaneous Acquisition - acquiring both languages at the same time, or
    Sequential Acquisition - acquiring a second language after mastering the first language."
  • "Children learn a second language in different ways depending upon their culture, individual personality and exposure to the language."
  • "Children most easily master content material when they are taught in a familiar language."

"When nurturing and communicating with babies and toddlers who experience more than one language, remember the importance of:

  • Enhancing the child's comfort and self-awareness with continuity between the home and child care setting.
    Providing some periods of exposure to the child's home language within the care setting (for example, helping to soothe a child that is experiencing distress by singing a familiar song) supports the child's feelings of emotional security.
    Babies should be provided with predictable routines that emphasize continuity between home and the care setting.
  • Encouraging caregivers to speak the language they speak most naturally.
    When caregivers speak their own native language, they can use the full range of rhythm and tone of voice to convey both meaning and attitude through their utterances. Native speakers also provide the best language models for children's language learning. It is advisable to have caregivers speak their best language, as long as communication with the rest of the staff can be maintained.
    When possible, provide exposure to authentic language models for children whose home language is different from the language of the broader community.
  • Communicating in the language of the broader community, especially in settings in which there is great diversity in the home languages of the children.
    Communicating with a child in the language of the broader community is desirable. But one must remember the importance of supporting the child's efforts to communicate in the language with which he or she is most familiar."

24 – 36 Months: Language Development & Communication

Did You Know?

  • "In today's world, bilingualism is a skill to be valued and supported when it is the goal of the toddler's family. Infants are quite capable of learning two languages from birth. They begin life with the ability to hear the differences among the sounds of many languages. Any sounds a child continues to hear reinforces the brain connections used to process them, so she will retain the ability to perceive and produce them.
  • By 2 - 3 years, toddlers are very capable of using each language with different people in different contexts. For example, speaking Spanish with the care provider and English with Mom and Dad, or speaking English with Mom and Spanish with Grandma. (Brain Wonders)
  • Remember: a toddler exposed to two languages is dealing with two very different systems of communication. While she is capable of doing this, her progress in each may appear a bit slower than if she were communicating in only one language. (Brain Wonders)"

Early Childhood: A Guide to Early Childhood Development [PDF, 3MB] (2007)

Guide: Preschool
Longer document intended to support Performance Standards in the Framework.

Introduction
"This guide serves as a reminder....Gender, temperament, learning styles, native languages, special needs and culturally diverse backgrounds contribute to variability in the attainment of developmental milestones."

Chapter 1
"Research shows that children benefit from teaching practices that support their home languages while encouraging the development of English (Tabors and Snow, 2001)."

Chapter 5: English Language Learners
"The more teachers understand the process of literacy development and the effects of learning more than one language, the better they can meet the needs of children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds...Teachers should also become familiar with the language spoken at home and be intentional in teaching appropriate literacy skills."

Chapter 5: Best Practices
"Learn key words and phrases in children's native languages to provide an environment that feels safe and receptive."

Connecticut's Early Learning and Development Standards: What children, birth to five, should know and be able to do [PDF, 2MB] (2014)

Guiding Principles
Young Children "There should be high expectations for all young children, regardless of their background, experience, language or developmental status."

Early Learning Environments
"Support children's language development in their primary language. Children's success in their primary language supports their growth and development across all domains, including acquisition of a second language. Early learning environments may provide opportunities for children to use their primary language and should support families in speaking and reading to their children in the language(s) they prefer."

Domain Wheel
"The supplemental Dual Language Development Framework applies to children learning multiple languages. Early learning environments must respect family language preference and honor children's development in their primary language and promote continued bi-lingual development."

Dual Language Development Framework: Learning Progressions for Second Language Acquisition (Supplement to Standards)
"It is necessary to consider information about children's language development in all languages they are learning when looking at their skills and progress in other developmental domains and content areas. The Language and Literacy domain applies to all students and reflects what children should know and be able to do in their first or primary language(s)...This section is...designed to raise awareness of the typical stages of acquiring a second language. It shows a general progression of skills, loosely based on a child with some initial experiences in a first language (L1) who is receiving continued support of language and academic development in L1 at the same time they are learning a second language (L2)."

"This document promotes continuing support for children's language development in their first language. While the supports for first and second language development may not occur in the same settings, communication and coordination to ensure common goals across settings will help to ensure the best outcomes for children."

Position Statement on Early Childhood Education [PDF, 482KB] (2010)

This one-page document from the Connecticut State Board of Education includes the following statement: "Early childhood programs should celebrate diversity and promote a sense of belonging, positive relationships and high expectations for all children, including those with disabilities and those who are English language learners."

Delaware

Delaware Early Learning Foundations: Infant/Toddler [PDF, 706KB] (2010)
(Available in English and Spanish)

Language and Literacy Domain

  • Introduction "Special consideration in the development of language skills should be given to dual language learners" (see above, Preschool Introduction).

Language and Literacy Older Infant (6-12 Months)
Expressive Language: What you can do to support a child's development:

  • "Learn names/signs of some objects of home setting in the baby's primary language."
  • "Use tapes/stories/songs in baby's primary language."
  • "Expose toddler to stories and songs in primary language."
  • "Invite parents to share taped stories and songs in home language."
  • "Learn words/signs that are most commonly used in toddler's primary language."

Delaware Early Learning Foundations: Preschool [PDF, 672KB] (2010)

Language and Literacy Domain
Introduction
"Attention needs to be given to English Language Learners since they face many issues as they are learning two languages at the same time. Preschoolers who have a strong foundation in their first language generally are able to learn a second language easier. Best practices indicate that instruction for language and literacy development should be given in the child's primary language first. When this is not possible parents are strongly encouraged to use their primary language at home while the preschooler learns a second language outside the home. Many languages differ in their structure from English. Therefore, early childhood professionals should be aware of such differences as they plan their instruction and should avoid referring students to special education programs. Overall, a rich multicultural variety of materials such as signs, posters, books, and pictures in two or more languages should surround the English Language Learners as much as possible."

Language and Literacy subdomains refer to using ASL and reinforcing child's native language.

My Family, My Community, My World Domain
What you can do to support a child's development:

  • "Make word charts of everyday words (with pictures) in English and languages spoken by children."
  • "Display print that is representative of language and culture of children in the group."
  • "Elicit family assistance to provide music, language, food and games to introduce other cultures."

The Connection: Delaware Early Learning and Development Standards and WIDA Early English Language Development Standards (2015)

(Downloadable PDF from WIDA Early Language Development Standards)

Introduction
"...ECE programs are only beginning to understand how to accommodate the linguistic needs of young dual language learners DLLs, children who are still developing their home language as they acquire English) when applying state ELS to assessment, curriculum, and instruction. Unfortunately, a strong potential for inaccuracy exists when assessing, supporting, and instructing young DLLs within standards-based curriculum due in part to the disconnect between DLLs' linguistic variations and states' performance benchmarks/indicators in ELS (Espinosa, 2012; Scott-Little, C., Lesko, J., Martella, J., & Milburn, P, 2007)."

Early English Language Development (E-ELD) Standards
"The...Early English Language Development (E-ELD) Standards were specifically developed to help support the unique language needs of DLLs, ages 2.5–5.5 years, who are in the process of learning more than one language prior to Kindergarten entry. Because language learning occurs across all areas of standards-based curricula, it is critical that ECE programs use language standards in conjunction with ELS when supporting, instructing, and assessing DLLs. Using language standards along with ELS helps practitioners concretely connect the linguistic variations and needs of DLLs across all content areas of standards-based curricula and assessments. As such, language standards provide a means for helping to close the gap that currently exists in delivering accurate and relevant instruction and assessment to DLLs at varying levels of English language development within standards-based curriculum."

Figure A: The Correspondence Between the Five Dimensions of Children's Development and the E-ELD Standards
"The...Early English Language Development (E-ELD) Standards were specifically developed to help support the unique language needs of DLLs, ages 2.5–5.5 years, who are in the process of learning more than one language prior to Kindergarten entry. Because language learning occurs across all areas of standards-based curricula, it is critical that ECE programs use language standards in conjunction with ELS when supporting, instructing, and assessing DLLs. Using language standards along with ELS helps practitioners concretely connect the linguistic variations and needs of DLLs across all content areas of standards-based curricula and assessments. As such, language standards provide a means for helping to close the gap that currently exists in delivering accurate and relevant instruction and assessment to DLLs at varying levels of English language development within standards-based curriculum."

Venn diagrams show the overlapping approaches to learning. Discussion of integrating E-ELD Standards-based curriculum, instruction, and assessment for DLLs.

"Using the six WIDA E-ELD Standards to inform their practice, practitioners will not find a prescriptive list of what DLLs need to know and be able to do in a particular instructional setting. Rather, language standards are generative in the sense that they help practitioners develop their own representations of how DLLs will use language in particular ECE communities. This involves connecting information about DLLs' language development with awareness of the language demands of a learning activity, and integrating language supports to maximize DLLs' learning and participation."

"While language standards provide guidance and reference points in organizing instruction to support both learning and language development, they are only one of many factors to consider in supporting DLLs' success in ECE settings..."

Figure B: The WIDA Early English Language Development Standards

  • Standard 1
    "Dual language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for success in the area of Social and Emotional Development"
  • Standard 2
    "Dual language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Early Language Development and Literacy"
  • Standard 3
    "Dual language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Mathematics"
  • Standard 4
    "Dual language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Science"
  • Standard 5
    "Dual language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Social Studies"
  • Standard 6
    "Dual language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Physical Development"

Understanding the WIDA Standards Framework
"[T]he WIDA Standards Framework components help practitioners identify and understand the receptive and expressive language that DLLs need in order to meet performance benchmarks/indicators across the...Guidelines for Preschool Learning Experiences. Specific consideration has been given to the nature of early language and cognitive development, family and community-based sociocultural contexts for language learning, and the psycholinguistic nature of second language development in preschoolers who are still developing the foundational structures and rules of language. [P]ractitioners and program leaders are encouraged to emphasize specific elements of the Framework in their language instruction to fit the specific needs of individual DLLs and contexts."

Developmentally Appropriate Academic Language
"[T]he E-ELD Features have been adapted and renamed to fit the unique characteristics of young DLLs' developing linguistic abilities during the early preschool years."

  • "Linguistic Complexity refers to the quantity and variety of language used by DLLs at the discourse level. Language features such as the length of utterances/interactions and how DLLs understand and express their ideas are included in this category."

Performance Definitions
"The Performance Definitions shape each of the three levels of English language development using the Features of Developmentally Appropriate Language as criteria. The three language levels, which outline the progression of early English language development are: Level 1— Entering, Level 3—Developing, and Level 5—Bridging. These language levels correspond to the five WIDA levels of language development for English language learners, K–12, but pertain uniquely to the stages of English language development in DLLs, ages 2.5–5.5."

"The Performance Definitions describe the language that DLLs can process and produce toward the end of each level of English language development when given language supports. These definitions do not represent all the possible skills that children will demonstrate at a particular level of language development. However, they do provide concrete guidelines as to the kinds of language practitioners might expect DLLs to understand or produce..."

Figure E, Figure F, Figure G, Figure H
"At all levels of language development, home language and English language development

  • Influence and reinforce each other; and
  • Mediate understanding, construction of meaning, and demonstration of knowledge."

At the very beginning stages of English language development, dual language learners typically understand more words than they are able to produce. Children may be non-verbal in English and rely primarily on their home language and/or gestures to communicate their needs, wants, and ideas.

".. DLLs cannot be represented through a single language development level...or even levels for each language domain...Instead, language is fluid and often varies based on the context for language use."

"The Performance Definitions also recognize the key role that home language plays at all levels of English language development. DLLs will continue to use home language as they develop their new language. The dynamic interaction between languages supports meaning making and the development of metalinguistic awareness. When the development of two languages is strongly encouraged and effectively supported, DLLs use all of their cognitive and linguistic assets to become successful language learners. "

"In short, engaging in translanguaging enables DLLs to use their entire linguistic repertoire to navigate between languages..."

Standards Matrices and Strands of Model Performance Indicators
"[T]he matrices help...practitioners envision what the E-ELD Standards Framework look like for different DLLs...The Strands of MPIs provide a consistent structure for.. ECE practitioners to use when scaffolding or assessing DLLs' language across a wide range of learning activities and environments. These strands are meant to be examples and not fixed guidelines of the language with which DLLs may engage during instruction and assessment."

Using WIDA E-ELD Standards...
"[T]he E-ELD Standards are designed to be used in tandem with ELS to guide and inform instruction and assessment for DLLs."

"Figure I...shows language for DLLs who are 2.5-3.5 years old..."

"In the matrix, the example context for language use refers to the particular situation, event, or context in which the communication occurs. DLLs use language in particular ways that vary according to the context...[I]n Figure I, DLLs will talk about and dramatize ways they travel from one place to another in small group settings. This provides us information about factors in the context that may impact how children use or process language. "

"The cognitive function is a reminder to...practitioners that DLLs need access to the same level of thinking as their peers regardless of their language development level. In the example shown in the...example matrix, all DLLs will be asked to apply their knowledge about travel as they participate in the activity, regardless of individual linguistic abilities."

"The E-ELD Standards Framework includes two language domains—receptive and expressive. These language domains, with their focus on oral language development, encompass the listening and speaking and overall meaning-making skills (e.g., gestures) DLLs will need and use across all six standards."

Strands of Model Performance Indicators
"In the example shown in the...example matrix, you see how DLLs at Entering level may need to repeat words in this context, while DLLs at the Developing level may be able to name the same words independently. This is not to say that a DLL at the Entering level is not able to name the vehicles and actions, but that he or she may be able to do so in a language other than English, or through signs or gestures. Similarly, a DLL at the Bridging level has enough language to describe vehicles and actions...While the DLL at the Developing level may be trying to describe to someone else, he or she will use language features related to naming to accomplish the same purpose for language use....Practitioners can use strands to...(b) create language targets and objectives that go beyond DLLs' independent level of language development and (c) differentiate the language of the content to match the level of DLLs' language development."

"Language functions describe how DLLs will produce or process language within specific context for learning...DLLs at all language levels can engage in higher level thinking according to their developmental capacity."

"The third element of the MPI...illustrates the importance of scaffolding language development for DLLs. WIDA names three categories of language supports for DLLs: sensory, graphic, and interactive. "

"...Although DLLs may be at different points in their language development trajectory, when learning particular content, certain specific and technical developmentally appropriate language is essential for engaging in learning the ideas and concepts presented. Through the use of scaffolds and supports, DLLs should have the opportunity to interact with that language."

Customizing Strands for Your Local Context
"The WIDA Strands of MPIs are examples that illustrate differentiated language expectations related to content-area instruction within one language domain. We invite...practitioners to create, innovate, transform, and customize the strands to best meet the needs of their DLLs and language education programs. Figure J shows the guiding questions practitioners should ask themselves when planning instruction for emerging bilinguals or when drafting customized Strands of MPIs."

E-ELD Standard: Example Topic
Language Domain(s): How will dual language learners process and use language?

    A Strand of Model Performance Indicators:
  • What language are DLLs expected to process or produce at each level of development?
  • Which language supports are necessary for DLLs to access language and content?

Crosswalk Between...Guidelines for Preschool Learning Experiences and WIDA Early English Language Development Standards
"The graphic found at the end of this document, Figure N, illustrates the crosswalk between...Guidelines for Preschool Learning Experiences and WIDA E-ELD Standards. This connection document can be used as a resource...in order to plan for and implement language support for.. DLLs."

Integrated Strands
Figure M. List of Sample Integrated Strands - WIDA E-ELD Standards – Complementary Strands
"Integrated Strand: The Language of Science: Dual language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Science."

"[W]e invite...Early Childhood practitioners and specialists to customize their own Complementary and Integrated Strands of Model Performance Indicators using the crosswalk between...Guidelines for Preschool Learning Experiences and WIDA E-ELD Standards as an initial resource,...ensur[ing] consistent language support and instruction for all DLLs."

Figure N: Crosswalk Between...Guidelines for Preschool Learning Experiences and WIDA E-ELD Standards
The following Crosswalks include information on DLLs

  • English Language Arts
  • Mathematics
  • Science and Technology/Engineering
  • History and Social Science
  • Health Education
  • Arts

Appendix A: Selected References
Espinosa, Linda M., Eugene García. (2012). Developmental Assessment of Young Dual Language Learners with a Focus on Kindergarten Entry Assessments: Implications for State Policies. Working paper #1, Center for Early Care and Education Research-Dual Language Learners (ECERDLL), Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, The University of North Carolina, November 2012.

District of Columbia

District of Columbia Common Core Early Learning Standards [Birth to Grade 3] [PDF, 8MB] (2012)

Introduction to District of Columbia Early Learning Standards:
Purpose and Uses of Early Learning Standards
"The…Standards should not be used to…exclude children based on…language spoken at home."

The Role of Assessment Cites NAEYC/NAECS-SDE regarding assessment: "Assessment methods should be ‘developmentally appropriate, culturally and linguistically responsive, tied to children's daily activities, supported by professional development, inclusive of families, and connected to specific, beneficial purposes.'"

Diversity and Multiculturalism
"Many cultural groups have a long-standing oral tradition, which is passed on to children through stories, songs, rhymes, and folklore. Making a connection between this tradition and the written word and oral language development that the Standards promote will greatly enhance the English literacy development of children from these backgrounds."

"Teachers can make meaningful, authentic, lifelong learning possible for children by engaging in practices that not only connect standards, curriculum, and teaching practices to positive outcomes, but clearly connect these same aspects to children's cultural/ family/home community expectations, values, and norms. They can do this by recognizing and appreciating children's cultural and language uniqueness, incorporating each child's family life into the program."

Federated States of Micronesia

NA

Florida

Florida Early Learning and Developmental Standards: Birth to Five [PDF, 2MB] (2012)

Language and Communication: Guiding Principles
"For children who are learning English as a second language, development and maintenance of the vocabulary and language conventions of their primary language increases the likelihood that they will become readers and writers of English. Children learning multiple languages from birth appear to develop each language in a similar fashion to children reared with only one language. Developing a solid foundation in multiple languages requires a partnership among parents, caregivers, and teachers to ensure that a rich, multilingual environment is consistently available."

"For children who are learning English as a second language, development and maintenance of the vocabulary and language conventions of their primary language increases the likelihood that they will become readers and writers of English. Children learning multiple languages from birth appear to develop each language in a similar fashion to children reared with only one language. Developing a solid foundation in multiple languages requires a partnership among parents, caregivers, and teachers to ensure that a rich, multilingual environment is consistently available."

Florida Early Learning and Developmental Standards for Four-Year-Olds [PDF, 9MB] (2011)

Introduction: Using the Standards for Four-Year-Olds with Diverse Learners
"Each child must be viewed as a unique person with an individual pattern and timing for growth, raised in a cultural context that may impact the acquisition of certain skills and competencies...It is important to foster acquisition of [the child's] native language along with English."

Approaches to Learning Introduction/Strategies to Support Inclusive Learning Environments
"Use vocabularyand phrases in the child's native language when introducing new ideas and concepts."

Language, Communication, and Emergent Literacy Domain/Strategies to Support Inclusive Learning Environments
"Use alternative strategies when communicating with children who are non-verbal, have language delays, or are English language learners."

Georgia

The Connection: Georgia Early Learning and Development Standards and WIDA Early English Language Development Standards [For ages 2.5-5.5] [PDF, 29MB] (2015)

(Downloadable PDF from WIDA Early Language Development Standards)

Introduction
"...ECE programs are only beginning to understand how to accommodate the linguistic needs of young dual language learners DLLs, children who are still developing their home language as they acquire English) when applying state ELS to assessment, curriculum, and instruction. Unfortunately, a strong potential for inaccuracy exists when assessing, supporting, and instructing young DLLs within standards-based curriculum due in part to the disconnect between DLLs' linguistic variations and states' performance benchmarks/indicators in ELS (Espinosa, 2012; Scott-Little, C., Lesko, J., Martella, J., & Milburn, P, 2007)."

Early English Language Development (E-ELD) Standards
"The...Early English Language Development (E-ELD) Standards were specifically developed to help support the unique language needs of DLLs, ages 2.5–5.5 years, who are in the process of learning more than one language prior to Kindergarten entry. Because language learning occurs across all areas of standards-based curricula, it is critical that ECE programs use language standards in conjunction with ELS when supporting, instructing, and assessing DLLs. Using language standards along with ELS helps practitioners concretely connect the linguistic variations and needs of DLLs across all content areas of standards-based curricula and assessments. As such, language standards provide a means for helping to close the gap that currently exists in delivering accurate and relevant instruction and assessment to DLLs at varying levels of English language development within standards-based curriculum."

Figure A: The Correspondence Between the Five Dimensions of Children's Development and the E-ELD Standards
Venn diagrams show the overlapping approaches to learning. Discussion of integrating E-ELD Standards-based curriculum, instruction and assessment for DLLs.

"Using the six WIDA E-ELD Standards to inform their practice, practitioners will not find a prescriptive list of what DLLs need to know and be able to do in a particular instructional setting. Rather, language standards are generative in the sense that they help practitioners develop their own representations of how DLLs will use language in particular ECE communities. This involves connecting information about DLLs' language development with awareness of the language demands of a learning activity, and integrating language supports to maximize DLLs' learning and participation."

"While language standards provide guidance and reference points in organizing instruction to support both learning and language development, they are only one of many factors to consider in supporting DLLs' success in ECE settings...."

Figure B: The WIDA Early English Language Development Standards

  • Standard 1
    "Dual language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for success in the area of Social and Emotional Development"
  • Standard 2
    "Dual language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Early Language Development and Literacy "
  • Standard 3
    "Dual language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Mathematics"
  • Standard 4
    "Dual language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Science"
  • Standard 5
    "Dual language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Social Studies"
  • Standard 6
    "Dual language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Physical Development"

Understanding the WIDA Standards Framework
[T]he WIDA Standards Framework components help practitioners identify and understand the receptive and expressive language that DLLs need in order to meet performance benchmarks/indicators across the...Guidelines for Preschool Learning Experiences. Specific consideration has been given to the nature of early language and cognitive development, family and community-based sociocultural contexts for language learning, and the psycholinguistic nature of second language development in preschoolers who are still developing the foundational structures and rules of language. [P]ractitioners and program leaders are encouraged to emphasize specific elements of the Framework in their language instruction to fit the specific needs of individual DLLs and contexts.

Developmentally Appropriate Academic Language
"[T]he E-ELD Features have been adapted and renamed to fit the unique characteristics of young DLLs' developing linguistic abilities during the early preschool years."

  • "Linguistic Complexity refers to the quantity and variety of language used by DLLs at the discourse level. Language features such as the length of utterances/interactions and how DLLs understand and express their ideas are included in this category."

Performance Definitions
"The Performance Definitions shape each of the three levels of English language development using the Features of Developmentally Appropriate Language as criteria. The three language levels, which outline the progression of early English language development are: Level 1— Entering, Level 3—Developing, and Level 5—Bridging. These language levels correspond to the five WIDA levels of language development for English language learners, K–12, but pertain uniquely to the stages of English language development in DLLs, ages 2.5–5.5."

"The Performance Definitions describe the language that DLLs can process and produce toward the end of each level of English language development when given language supports. These definitions do not represent all the possible skills that children will demonstrate at a particular level of language development. However, they do provide concrete guidelines as to the kinds of language practitioners might expect DLLs to understand or produce..."

Figure E, Figure F, Figure G, Figure H
At all levels of language development, home language and English language development

  • Influence and reinforce each other; and
  • Mediate understanding, construction of meaning, and demonstration of knowledge."

At the very beginning stages of English language development, dual language learners typically understand more words than they are able to produce. Children may be non-verbal in English and rely primarily on their home language and/or gestures to communicate their needs, wants, and ideas.

At the very beginning stages of English language development, dual language learners typically understand more words than they are able to produce. Children may be non-verbal in English and rely primarily on their home language and/or gestures to communicate their needs, wants, and ideas.

"...DLLs cannot be represented through a single language development level...or even levels for each language domain...Instead, language is fluid and often varies based on the context for language use. "

"The Performance Definitions also recognize the key role that home language plays at all levels of English language development. DLLs will continue to use home language as they develop their new language. The dynamic interaction between languages supports meaning making and the development of metalinguistic awareness. When the development of two languages is strongly encouraged and effectively supported, DLLs use all of their cognitive and linguistic assets to become successful language learners. "

"In short, engaging in translanguaging enables DLLs to use their entire linguistic repertoire to navigate between languages..."

Standards Matrices and Strands of Model Performance Indicators
"[T]he matrices help...practitioners envision what the E-ELD Standards Framework look like for different DLLs....The Strands of MPIs provide a consistent structure for.. ECE practitioners to use when scaffolding or assessing DLLs' language across a wide range of learning activities and environments. These strands are meant to be examples and not fixed guidelines of the language with which DLLs may engage during instruction and assessment."

Using WIDA E-ELD Standards...
"[T]he E-ELD Standards are designed to be used in tandem with ELS to guide and inform instruction and assessment for DLLs."

"Figure I...shows language for DLLs who are 2.5- 3.5 years old..."

"In the matrix, the example context for language use refers to the particular situation, event, or context in which the communication occurs. DLLs use language in particular ways that vary according to the context....[I]n Figure I, DLLs will talk about and dramatize ways they travel from one place to another in small group settings. This provides us information about factors in the context that may impact how children use or process language. "

"The cognitive function is a reminder to...practitioners that DLLs need access to the same level of thinking as their peers regardless of their language development level. In the example shown in the...example matrix, all DLLs will be asked to apply their knowledge about travel as they participate in the activity, regardless of individual linguistic abilities."

"The E-ELD Standards Framework includes two language domains—receptive and expressive. These language domains, with their focus on oral language development, encompass the listening and speaking and overall meaning-making skills (e.g., gestures) DLLs will need and use across all six standards."

Strands of Model Performance Indicators
"In the example shown in the...example matrix, you see how DLLs at Entering level may need to repeat words in this context, while DLLs at the Developing level may be able to name the same words independently. This is not to say that a DLL at the Entering level is not able to name the vehicles and actions, but that he or she may be able to do so in a language other than English, or through signs or gestures. Similarly, a DLL at the Bridging level has enough language to describe vehicles and actions...While the DLL at the Developing level may be trying to describe to someone else, he or she will use language features related to naming to accomplish the same purpose for language use...Practitioners can use strands to...(b) create language targets and objectives that go beyond DLLs' independent level of language development and (c) differentiate the language of the content to match the level of DLLs' language development."

"In the matrix, the example context for language use refers to the particular situation, event, or context in which the communication occurs. DLLs use language in particular ways that vary according to the context....[I]n Figure I, DLLs will talk about and dramatize ways they travel from one place to another in small group settings. This provides us information about factors in the context that may impact how children use or process language."

"Language functions describe how DLLs will produce or process language within specific context for learning...DLLs at all language levels can engage in higher level thinking according to their developmental capacity."

"The third element of the MPI...illustrates the importance of scaffolding language development for DLLs. WIDA names three categories of language supports for DLLs: sensory, graphic, and interactive."

"...Although DLLs may be at different points in their language development trajectory, when learning particular content, certain specific and technical developmentally appropriate language is essential for engaging in learning the ideas and concepts presented. Through the use of scaffolds and supports, DLLs should have the opportunity to interact with that language."

Customizing Strands for Your Local Context
"The WIDA Strands of MPIs are examples that illustrate differentiated language expectations related to content-area instruction within one language domain. We invite...practitioners to create, innovate, transform, and customize the strands to best meet the needs of their DLLs and language education programs. Figure J shows the guiding questions practitioners should ask themselves when planning instruction for emerging bilinguals or when drafting customized Strands of MPIs."

E-ELD Standard: Example Topic
Language Domain(s): How will dual language learners process and use language?

    A Strand of Model Performance Indicators:
  • What language are DLLs expected to process or produce at each level of development?
  • Which language supports...are necessary for DLLs to access language and content?

Crosswalk Between Georgia Guidelines for Preschool Learning Experiences and WIDA Early English Language Development Standards
"The graphic found at the end of this document, Figure N, illustrates the crosswalk between...Guidelines for Preschool Learning Experiences and WIDA E-ELD Standards. This connection document can be used as a resource...in order to plan for and implement language support for.. DLLs."

Integrated Strands
Figure M. List of Sample Integrated Strands - WIDA E-ELD Standards – Complementary Strands
"Integrated Strand: The Language of Science: Dual language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Science."

"[W]e invite...Early Childhood practitioners and specialists to customize their own Complementary and Integrated Strands of Model Performance Indicators using the crosswalk between...Guidelines for Preschool Learning Experiences and WIDA E-ELD Standards as an initial resource...ensur[ing] consistent language support and instruction for all DLLs."

Figure N: Crosswalk Between...Guidelines for Preschool Learning Experiences and WIDA E-ELD Standards
The following Crosswalks include information on DLLs

  • English Language Arts
  • Mathematics
  • Science and Technology/Engineering
  • History and Social Science
  • Health Education
  • Arts

Appendix A: Selected References
Espinosa, Linda M., Eugene García. (2012). Developmental Assessment of Young Dual Language Learners with a Focus on Kindergarten Entry Assessments: Implications for State Policies. Working paper #1, Center for Early Care and Education Research-Dual Language Learners (ECERDLL), Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, The University of North Carolina, November 2012.

Georgia Early Learning Standards: Birth Through Age 3 [PDF, 29MB]

Guiding Principle #6
"Early learning experiences must support the diverse culture, home language, and individual learning potential of each child."

Frequently Asked Questions #7
"How do the standards apply to children from other cultures and whose families speak a language other than English?...There are many ways children can meet the standards, and speaking the child's home language is one of them. Teachers should encourage children to use their native language while learning English as well."

Language and Literacy Development (Infant and 1-, 2-, and 3-Year-Old Standards)
"A critical consideration in the area of language and literacy development is that children will demonstrate skills in their home language first...If the family speaks both English and their native language, the child may use words from both languages easily. Similarly, a child with a hearing loss may to be taught sign language at an early age and might also use some type of adaptive device to communicate."

Georgia's Pre-K Program: Content Standards [PDF, 3MB]

Introduction
Includes one-page section on Strategies to Support English Language Learners that provides environmental and instructional supports and strategies for working with families. Each section includes a Strategies to Support Inclusive Environments box that often suggests use of pictures/visuals.

Guam

Guam Early Learning Guidelines for Young Children: Birth to 36 Months [PDF, 4MB] (2007)

Adapted from State of Maryland, Department of Human Resources Child Care Administration's Guidelines for Healthy Child Development and Care for Young Children (Birth to Three Years of Age). Does not address Dual Language/English Language Learners.

Birth to 8 Months: Language Development
Understand and Communicate - What You Can Do:

  • Recognize and use various sounds and movements to communicate.
    "Speak to baby in language(s) familiar to baby, when possible."

9 to 18 Months: Language Development
Understand and Communicate

  • Communicate using consistent sounds, words, and gestures.
    "Have baby repeat simple words..."(Includes sample words in Chamorro, but not specifically in context of English Language Learning).

Guam Early Learning Guidelines for Young Children Ages Three to Five [PDF, 6MB] (2005)

Adapted from Hawai'i Preschool Content Standards: Curriculum Guidelines for Programs for Four-Year-Olds; mapped to The Creative Curriculum and Public School Standards for 4s and 5s.

Communication, Language Development and Literacy
Introduction
"Teachers, providers, and caregivers should respect and incorporate the rich diversity of children who may come from different cultural backgrounds and who may speak languages other than English, while ensuring they get a good foundation of the English language. This is important so children can communicate effectively with others in their home community and preschool setting."

Hawaii

Idaho

Idaho Early Learning eGuidelines (2013)

Guidelines: 3 – 5 (Also includes kindergarten-3rd, not addressed here)

About the Idaho Early Learning eGuidelines
Guiding Principles
"Development and learning are rooted in culture and supported by the family. A child's language, knowledge, traditions, and family expectations are the primary influences on development."

Essential Practices: Cultural Context
"Incorporate teaching and learning strategies from children's cultural background (e.g., use culturally and linguistically appropriate song games, stories, changes, music, dance, and movement) and culturally specific knowledge in coordination with cognitive development."

Domain 3: Social and Emotional Development
Goal 35: Children Recognize, Appreciate, and Respect Similarities and Differences in People
Social Development: Appreciating Diversity - Caregiver Strategies:

  • 6 – 18 months: "providers can learn and use a few soothing words and words from the child's home language in common everyday functions. Play music and sing songs in the languages of the children in a group"
  • 60 months – K: "In classroom settings, staff can learn and use words for common daily events and actions from the home languages of children in the class."

Domain 5: Communication, Language, and Literacy
Rationale
"…No matter which language is being learned (i.e. English, American Sign Language, Spanish, or other languages); the vital role of children's opportunities to practice those languages cannot be neglected."

Supporting Individual Differences, Language, and Cultural Diversity
"Millions of young children in the United States speak a language other than English in their homes. Children benefit cognitively from learning two or more languages. The ability to communicate in more than one language supports children's cognitive flexibility and awareness of words as symbols."

"Children learn second languages in two ways. They either acquire two or more languages at the same time, or they learn a second language after mastering the "home language".

"It is typical that they may mix words from the two languages in the same sentence for a short time."

"Competence in the home language can be supported while the child learns a second language. Rather than focusing on one language over another, the child can acquire both languages with support for achieving growth and fluency in both. Some children go through a "silent period" when learning a second or third language...When their home language is actively supported and valued, children will learn English or another language faster...The eGuidelines provide indicators and strategies to support the development of children's home language while helping children acquire beginning proficiency in English."

Goal 48: Children Demonstrate the Meaning of Language by Listening
Communication: Listening - Caregiver Strategies:

  • 16 – 38 months: "Include songs and stories from child's home language in group activities.
  • 36 – 60 months: "Provide English Language Learner (ELL) or child learning any other language with opportunities to participate in by using gestures, props, pictures, demonstration. Provide tape-recorded stories from the child's home culture and in the child's home language."

Goal 50: Children Comprehend and Use Conventions of Social Communication
Communication: Conventions of Social Communication - Caregiver Strategies:

  • 16 – 38 months: "Encourage dual language learners to use both languages in daily routines. Value and celebrate child's home language and culture. Speak using child's home language and English."

Child Indicators

  • 6 – 18 months: "…Makes more specific sounds of home language than general vocal sounds."
  • 36 – 60 months: "Bilingual children adjust language and communication form according to the person with whom they are speaking."

Goal 51: Children Use Receptive Vocabulary
Language: Vocabulary - Caregiver Strategies:

  • 16 – 38 months: "Provide opportunities and activities in more than one language if children are learning languages simultaneously."

Child Indicators

  • 6 – 18 months: "Has a receptive vocabulary of approximately fifty words in home language. Responds to words in home language, but may look puzzled by words in another language. If learning two languages simultaneously, responds to requests in either language."

Goal 52: Children Use Expressive Vocabulary
Language: Vocabulary - Caregiver Strategies:

  • 16 – 38 months: "For an English Language Learner (Ell), learn and use key words in child's home language including "signs," if appropriate."
  • 36 – 60 months: "Support meaningful use of language for dual language learners (DLL) by avoiding translating everything for child and by using props, gestures, role-plays, pictures, physical movements, and demonstrations."

Child Indicators

  • 16 – 38 months: "May exhibit a period of silence when learning a second language."

Goal 53: Children Demonstrate Progression in Grammar and Syntax
Language: Grammar and Syntax - Caregiver Strategies:

  • 16 – 38 months: "Recognize that dual language learners may mix words from different languages in the same sentence."
  • 36 – 60 months: "If child is bilingual, talk with the child in both languages, at different times of the day....Let child know that you recognize all languages and means of expression as a valid means of communication."

Child Indicators

  • 60 months – K: "Uses sentences (in child's home language) that show an emergence of grammatical correctness with subject/verb agreement."

Goal 54: Children Demonstrate Comprehension and Meaning in Language
Language: Comprehension - Caregiver Strategies:

  • 60 months – K: "Uses and understands complex sentences in the home language."

Goal 60: Reading – Children Demonstrate Awareness That Written Materials Can Be Used For a Variety of Purposes
Literacy: Reading - Caregiver Strategies:

  • 60 months – K: "Promote family participation in literacy-related activities in both English and child's home language (ask parents to read their favorite book in their home language to child)."

Goal 61: Writing – Children Demonstrate Knowledge and Use of Letters and Symbols
Literacy: Writing - Caregiver Strategies:

  • 36 - 60 months: "Shows awareness of two or more different writing systems (especially appropriate for ELL and bilingual/multilingual children)."

Goal 62: Writing – Children Use Writing Skills and Demonstrate Knowledge of Writing Conventions
Literacy: Writing - Caregiver Strategies:

  • 36 – 60 months: "Provide opportunities to talk about what child notices about two different writing systems (especially appropriate for ELL and bilingual/multilingual children)."

Child Indicators

  • 36 – 60 months: "Uses pretend writing activities during play that represent print conventions in home language (vertical for Chinese, right to left Arabic)."

Goal 64: Children Demonstrate Competency in Home Language While Acquiring Beginning Proficiency in English
Literacy: Writing - Caregiver Strategies:

  • English Language Learners: Dual Language Acquisition
    This section contains four pages of developmental growth, child indicators and caregiver strategies.

Illinois

Illinois Early Learning Guidelines for Children Birth to Age Three [PDF, 8MB] (2012)

Introduction:
Birth order
"Differences in abilities, language, culture, personality, and experiences should not be seen as deficits, but instead, be recognized as the unique characteristics that define who children are. The important goal early childhood profes¬sionals are tasked with during this age period is how to best support children's diverse needs."

Developmental Domain 3:
Language Development, Communication, and Literacy
"…Throughout the Guidelines, language development, communication, and literacy are referencing children's development in their home, or primary, language, regardless of whether or not this language is that of the majority."

"[Children] have the ability to learn more than one language at a time, and it is easier for children to learn an additional language than it is for adults. Research highlights that there is a critical period for acquiring more than one language; that critical period is the first five years of life."

Receptive Communication
"...After six months of age, children concentrate on discriminating sounds and patterns in their primary language. Therefore, their ear becomes more finely tuned to their primary language, and they lose the ability to discriminate speech sounds in other languages."

Expressive Communication
Birth to 9 months
Strategy: "Take into account the home language of the child and try to use familiar words in that particular language."

Real World Story:
This section includes a scenario of a 36-month-old DLL child whose first language is Spanish. Side bar includes a definition of code-switching: "...the practice of moving back and forth between two languages within the same dialogue or conversation."

Early Literacy
7-18 months
Strategy: "Read or sign stories that repeat words or phrases; ensure to say or sign these words or phrases in the child's primary language if possible."

Illinois Early Learning and Development Standards: For Preschool – 3 Years Old to Kindergarten Enrollment Age [PDF, 1MB] (2013)
Also available in Spanish (español)

Language Arts
"...[Teachers] are attentive to the child's home language (if it is not English) and turn to the English Language Learner Home Language Development domain of the ELDS to best address the child's overall language needs."

Mathematics
(Scenario) "Each day, the group counts...They say the counting words in both English and Spanish… Ms. O'Brien takes advantage of every opportunity she can to name the shapes for the children in both English and Spanish."

English Language Learner Home Language Development
"For young children who are English Language Learners (ELLs), the home language is the vehicle by which they are socialized into their families and communities. It is the medium that fosters their earliest and most enduring relationships, their initial ideas about how the world works, and their emerging sense of self and identity. When preschool ELLs enter English-only preschool classrooms, they may lose their desire and eventually their ability to speak their home language. The development of linguistic, cognitive, and literacy skills in the child's first language provides the foundation for learning these skills in English. The knowledge and skills children demonstrate in their home language can be applied to the learning of English for social and academic purposes. Therefore, a child's understanding and ability to use her home language is the first step in acquiring English proficiency and English literacy skills."

"The early childhood years are the critical time for developing mastery of the sounds, structures, and functions of language and thus an ideal time to expose children to the benefits of two languages. Therefore, the Illinois ELL Home Language Development Standards begin with home language goals and benchmarks. These indicators of progress in mastering the elements of the home language are critical to the process of acquiring English proficiency and developing the underlying linguistic knowledge necessary for academic success in English."

Goal 28
"Use the home language to communicate within and beyond the classroom."

Goal 29
"Use the home language to make connections and reinforce knowledge and skills across academic and social areas."

Indiana

Foundations to the Indiana Academic Standards for Young Children from Birth to Age 5 [PDF, 7MB] (2012)

Introduction
Recommended Practices for Young Children Who are English Language Learners (EL) (two or more pages). Explains levels of English proficiency and importance of encouraging home language. Lists strategies for caregivers.

English/Language Arts - Common Core State Standard: Reading Standards...Print Concepts...
A Child Can be Supported by an Adult Who: "Includes non-English books and stories to help support a child whose first language is not English."

How It Looks in Everyday Activities: A few examples include English language, sign language.

Indiana Birth – Age Five Literacy Framework [PDF, 6MB] (2011)

English Learners and Literacy Development
"If children are English Learners (EL), it is important to support the continued development and maintenance of the home language while children acquire English (Tabors, 2008). In fact, evidence suggests that children who continue to learn academic concepts in their native language while gradually learning English outperform both academically and socially when compared to children who are in English-only programs (Restrepo & Kruth, 2003)."

This section addresses the importance of developing and maintaining home language; the need for curriculum, instruction, and assessment to support language diversity; and the need for "sensitivity to individual language needs".

Iowa

Iowa Early Learning Standards [0-5] [PDF, 2MB] (2012)

Introduction
"What is Different in the 2012…Standards?
"In the communication, language, and literacy content area, the role of a child's home language has been included. In addition, within the preschool section, additional benchmarks for English language learners have been defined. Additional benchmarks were not added to the infant/toddler sections, because those benchmarks address all language learners."

Guiding Principles
"Development and learning occur in and are influenced by multiple social and cultural contexts, including the language of the family and home."

Essential Considerations
The Importance of Embracing Diversity
"When a child's cultural and linguistic background is reflected in the care and learning environment, learning is more meaningful and effective. This is the heart of individualized care."

"To embrace diversity, caring adults can...

  • provide a handbook of program policies and procedures in each family's home language;
  • review the information in a handbook verbally with each family, using an interpreter as needed;
  • provide opportunities for children to join in activities, such as finger-plays or singing songs, from each other's home language or culture;
  • use words, key phrases, and sentences from each child's home language throughout daily routines and experiences;
  • include staff or volunteers from the child's home culture or who speak the same language;"

The Role of Assessment
"Assessments should be developmentally appropriate, culturally and linguistically responsive...

What This Means for Families
"Families whose home language is not English should expect that their children will be assessed in their home language. They should also expect that results of any assessments will be provided to them in a manner which is easy and meaningful for them to understand."

Infant Toddler Standards
Area 3: Social Emotional Development
3.1 Self

Adult Supports

  • "With infants and toddlers, adults:...point out and correctly name each child's body parts using their home language during daily routines..."

Area 4: Communication, Language and Literacy
4.1 Language Understanding and Use

Rationale
"In recent years, there has been an increase in the linguistic, ethnic, and cultural diversity of infants and toddlers in early care and education programs. Dual language acquisition, the development of skills and knowledge in two or more languages during the first five years of life, is increasing as well. Building relationships with families who come from a different culture and/or use a different language will take more time, but will result in better outcomes (Tabors, 2008). Caring adults need to understand the advantages of maintaining and using a child's primary home language as well as how infants and toddlers learn a second language. Use of a child's home language supports infant and toddler development through building a sense of self within their family (Pearson & Mangione, 2006). Young children can learn two languages at once, although there are individual differences in the rate and manner in which they are learned."

Adult Supports - "With infants and toddlers, adults:

  • describe children's routines, experiences, and play in English and in each child's home language."

Area 4: Communication, Language and Literacy
4.1 Language Understanding and Use

Rationale
"In recent years, there has been an increase in the linguistic, ethnic, and cultural diversity of infants and toddlers in early care and education programs. Dual language acquisition, the development of skills and knowledge in two or more languages during the first five years of life, is increasing as well. Building relationships with families who come from a different culture and/or use a different language will take more time, but will result in better outcomes (Tabors, 2008). Caring adults need to understand the advantages of maintaining and using a child's primary home language as well as how infants and toddlers learn a second language. Use of a child's home language supports infant and toddler development through building a sense of self within their family (Pearson & Mangione, 2006). Young children can learn two languages at once, although there are individual differences in the rate and manner in which they are learned."

Adult Supports - "With infants and toddlers, adults:

  • describe children's routines, experiences, and play in English and in each child's home language."

4.2 Early Literacy
Adult Supports - "With infants and toddlers, adults:

  • talk with each child during routines… using English and words from each child's home language.
  • provide opportunities daily for each child to participate in fingerplays, rhymes, and songs, including those in sign language, the home language..."

Area 7: Social Studies
7.1 Awareness of Family and Community

Adult Supports - "With infants and toddlers, adults:

  • talk with each child during routines… using English and words from each child's home language.
  • provide opportunities daily for each child to participate in fingerplays, rhymes, and songs, including those in sign language, the home language..."

Area 7: Social Studies
7.1 Awareness of Family and Community

Adult Supports - "With infants and toddlers, adults:

  • "incorporate familiar items, language, and routines from each child's culture into program settings."

7.2 Awareness of Culture
Adult Supports - "With infants and toddlers, adults:

  • provide opportunities for each child to join in experiences such as fingerplays or singing songs from the child's home language or culture;
  • learn words from each child's home language;
  • speak to each child in his/her home language."

Preschool Standards
Area 10: Social and Emotional Development
10.1 Self

Rationale
"All children including children with diverse needs such as children who are learning English, children with disabilities, or children at risk for disabilities, need the opportunity to make choices."
Adult Supports - "With infants and toddlers, adults:

  • provide opportunities for each child to express his/her thoughts and feelings about experiences through a variety of methods, including the use of words in his/her home language."

10.2 Self-Regulation
Adult Supports - "With infants and toddlers, adults:

  • learn key words and phrases in each child's home language especially those related to emotions and behavior."

10.3 Relationships with Adults
Adult Supports - "With infants and toddlers, adults:

  • attempt to communicate with and foster relationships with each child, irrespective of their ability to speak a child's home language."

10.4 Relationships with Children
Adult Supports - "With infants and toddlers, adults:

  • create opportunities that allow English language learners to engage with their peers."

Area 11: Communication, Language and Literacy
11.1 Language Understanding and Use

Rationale
"…Recent demographic trends show a dramatic increase in culturally and linguistically diverse children (Hobbs & Stoops, 2002)....Many preschool settings are structured to operate according to a well-established school culture. Children...who are from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds, may experience cultural conflicts because they are accustomed to different ways of learning and communication. For young children, the language of the home is the language they use to make and establish meaningful relationships (NAEYC, 1995). The ongoing support and development of the home language serves as a foundation for learning English. Maintaining a child's home language allows children to stay deeply connected to their families, as well as builds their bi-lingual skills (Derman-Sparks & Edwards, 2010). When a caring adult supports children's use of the home language, the children's ability to learn increases. Learning a second language can be difficult and people progress at different rates in learning both first and second languages… Learning through shared experiences helps children become more competent bilingual-bicultural learners (California Department of Education, 2009)."

"Children, who speak a language other than English, typically go through several stages of English language development prior to being considered proficient...There may be an extended period of time when the child understands some English but relies on the home language, as well as gestures and nonverbal means, to communicate. During this time, the child is attending to and listening to...English..."

"It is important for adults to plan instruction for each child based on their stage of language acquisition."
Adult Supports - "With infants and toddlers, adults:

Adult Supports - "With infants and toddlers, adults:

  • understand and accept what stage of language development an English language learner is at and tailor interactions to meet their needs;...
  • intentionally promote the inclusion of all children who...are English language learners;
  • pair children with special needs or English language learners with helpful peers who can serve as good language and peer models;
  • learn key words, phrases, and sentences in each child's home language and use them in the early care and education setting;
  • promote the value of bilingualism and strive to maintain the home language;
  • have parents, or others speaking each child's home language, record songs, stories, or rhymes for use in the early care and education setting;
  • label classroom materials in English and each child's home language."

11.2 Early Literacy
Adult Supports - "With infants and toddlers, adults:

  • ensure that each child has access to a variety of books in English and his/her home language;...
  • provide books in each child's home language;...
  • provide printed materials in each child's home language;...
  • incorporate sounds and words from each child's home language in daily conversations and activities."

Area 12: Mathematics and Science
12.1 Comparison and Number

Adult Supports - "With infants and toddlers, adults:

  • "teach children to count in the languages of the children and families in the classroom;...
  • encourage children and families to share fingerplays, songs, or rhymes from their home language;...

12.2 Patterns
Adult Supports - "With infants and toddlers, adults:

  • use English and each child's home language to describe patterns."

12.3 Shapes and Spatial Reasoning
Adult Supports - "With infants and toddlers, adults:

  • use shape and spatial words in English and each child's home language to describe the environment, both indoors and outdoors."

Area 13: Creative Arts
13.2 Music, Rhythm, and Movement
Rationale

"Music provides opportunities for children to connect with their home language and culture, as well as the multiple languages and cultures within their community and the world."
Adult Supports - "With infants and toddlers, adults:

  • "teach children to count in the languages of the children and families in the classroom;...
  • encourage children and families to share fingerplays, songs, or rhymes from their home language;...

Area 14: Social Studies
12.3 Shapes and Spatial Reasoning

Adult Supports - "With infants and toddlers, adults:

  • provide each child with varied opportunities and materials to build their understanding of diversity in culture, family structure, ability, language, age, and gender in non-stereotypical ways and using project-based strategies;
  • learn words, phrases, and sentences from each child's home language and use this language within interactions and play experiences."

Kansas

Kansas Early Learning Standards [0 – K] [PDF, 4MB] (2013)
(PDFs for each section)

Introduction
Guiding Principles

  1. "Integrated services are available to children, appropriate to the age, abilities, language and culture of each child."
  2. "Schools are ready to support the success of each child, recognizing their wide range of cultural and linguistic back¬grounds, learning experiences and differences in abilities."

Communication and Literacy Skill Development
Introduction: Dual Language Learners
"Research shows that overwhelming young children with a new language at the expense of the home language does not help them learn the new language faster and may, in fact, hinder cognitive development. Therefore early childhood programs that include dual language learners should build learning programs that strongly support continued development in the home language while also scaffolding English skill development."

Kentucky

PreK-K ELL Reference Handbook: A Resource for Serving Preschool and Kindergarten English Language Learners [PDF, 1MB] (2009)

Reference Handbook
Title page
"This document serves as a reference tool for Kentucky administrators and educators of preschool and kindergarten English language learners. This guide provides the necessary information relating to cultural considerations, family involvement, language acquisition, identification procedures, funding information and effective strategies to serve this population."

Includes sections on Cultural Considerations, Family Involvement, Educational Standards, Strategies and Interventions, Assessments, ELL Students with Disabilities.

Building a Strong Foundation for School Success: Kentucky's Early Childhood Standards [PDF, XMB] (2009)

Standards
Guiding Principle
"...a child's culture impacts and shapes individual development. Early care, intervention, and education professionals must recognize the influence of socio-cultural context on learning and encourage the variety of ways in which children demonstrate their developmental achievements (NAEYC, 1997)."

"Addressing the cultural needs of individual children includes addressing the needs for those for which English is not their primary language...(i.e., English Language Learners). The...Standards are purposefully written without delineating English as the primary language. Instead the focus is on the skills needed for effective communication. This allows for flexibility to accommodate the needs of children from families whose primary language is not English, as well as the needs of children who use other modes of communication (e.g., American Sign Language, communication devices). Supports for increasing a child's use of the English language may be included in the daily activities, but are not the primary focus of the...Standards."

Louisiana

Louisiana's Birth to Five Early Learning & Development Standards [PDF, 5MB] (2013)

Introduction
Effective Use of Early Learning and Development Standards with All Children - English Language Learners
"A child's language development (both his/her home language and progress in learning English) will depend on the amount and type of language they hear other people using and the opportunities he/she has to practice language skills. Therefore, each child's progress in learning English needs to be respected and supported as part of the ongoing process of learn¬ing any new skill.

As teachers and caregivers work with ELL children, it is important to remember to address all areas of their learning and development ELL chil-dren need to have opportunities to make progress on all of the Standards and Indicators described in this document. Research suggests that ELL children will learn concepts and display skills best in their home language during the time they are learning English. Therefore, whenever pos¬sible, children should have opportunities to interact with and engage in both their home language and in English in rich and meaningful ways. For example, program staff might learn to use some basic phrases from a child's home language, such as greetings or praise words. Programs can also invite the help of bilingual family members or volunteers who are willing to contribute their time in the classroom by interacting with children or serving as an interpreter for parents.

Teachers and caregivers should also remember that children can demonstrate any of the skills described in this document in their home lan¬guage—they can demonstrate their understanding of health and safety practices, social skills with peers and adults, positive approaches to learning, language development, and knowledge of science, mathematics and other areas in their home language. In fact, teachers and care¬givers can best see ELL children's progress on the Standards and Indicators when children communicate in their home language, and it gives a more accurate picture of a child's progress. For instance, when learning to count (an indicator within the Cognitive Development domain), children may count in their home language. This signals to teachers and caregivers that the child has learned this concept and has the poten¬tial for transferring those skills to a second language. Again, teachers and caregivers who do not speak a child's home language may need to enlist the help of bilingual staff or family members to ensure that the ELL child has the opportunity to learn and demonstrate progress on the Standards in his/her home language.

Finally, teachers and caregivers should remember that it is important to work closely with all children's families, and this is especially true for English Language Learners. Families can provide valuable information about the family's home language and how often the child hears Eng¬lish being spoken. The families may also provide information about how the child learns best, and they can work to reinforce what the child is learning in the program with similar experiences at home. Families are a tremendous resource for understanding a child's home culture, and they are key to working effectively with children from diverse cultures."

Language and Literacy Development
Introduction - English Language Learners (ELLs)
"Children whose families speak a different language in the home learn language similarly to English-speaking children, but may face some unique challenges as we try to help them learn skills needed to communicate successfully in school. As the United States becomes increas¬ingly diverse, more and more educators must find a way to integrate children whose first language is not English into their classrooms… It is important for early childhood educators to recognize the need for children and families to maintain their home language and culture, while beginning to acquire the language of the learning environment.

Children's ability to acquire a second language is influenced by many factors including the extent to which the child is exposed to the new lan¬guage; the child's temperament; and the child's need and/or opportunity to use the language to communicate....It is essential that both children's language development in their home language and their language development in English be supported for them to make progress in this domain as well as the other domains described in these Standards."

Table of Contents
Appendix F
Strategies to support English Language Learners (ELL) in Program Activities. This includes strategies that teachers can use with children and families.

Maine

Supporting Maine's Infants and Toddlers: Guidelines for Learning and Development [PDF, 1MB]

Guidelines: Infant/Toddler
Text box on p.20
"A little about...multilingual and multicultural families."

Domain: Development of the ability to communicate (8-18 mo): Language Expression
"Initial language development occurs within the context of relationship. NOTE: Mode of communication in which the child is most fluent including child's primary language, sign language, or assistive communication device."

Application (18-36 months)
"Ensure that language activity is individualized around the language in which the toddler is most fluent:

  • If possible make sure that books are written in the toddler's native language.
  • If a toddler is hard of hearing or deaf make sure that caregivers are proficient in sign language.
  • Use sign with spoken language as an alternate means of communication for all children in the environment.
  • Teach simple foreign language words."

State of Maine Early Childhood Learning Guidelines [PDF, 3MB] (2005)

Guidelines: 3-5
Designed with 8 domains, 1-2 domain elements, several indicators and examples for each.

Purpose
"These examples are inclusive of children on the developmental continuum including those children who are learning English as a second language."

Essential Practices
"As early childhood professionals work to incorporate practices that support all of the...Guidelines, they should demonstrate a respect for and appreciation of the language skills, knowledge, and culture that the young child learning English brings to the early childhood environment, while encouraging the development of the child's home language."

Early Language and Literacy
"...many children in today's early childhood settings are English language learners—speaking a language other than English in their homes. The goal of all early childhood learning environments is to help all children gain proficiency in English, while honoring their home language and culture."

Early Language and Literacy: Indicators

  • "Progresses in listening to and understanding the English language while maintaining home language, when the two are not the same"
  • "Demonstrates increased proficiency in home and English language [sic] (English Language Learner)"

Republic of Marshall Islands

NA

Maryland

Healthy Beginnings: Supporting Development and Learning from Birth through Three Years of Age [PDF, 1MB] (2010)

Guidelines:
Birth to Four Months
Language Development
B.3. "Activities (you can):

  • Use the baby's primary language, when possible"

Cognitive Development
"Find songs or poems that are common in your community. Ask family members or friends to teach you songs in their native languages."

Four to Eight Months
Language Development
A.2. Examples ("The baby might):

  • Babble using the sounds and rhythms of his native language."

Activities ("You can):

  • Speak to the baby in his primary language, if possible."

Twenty-Four to Thirty Months
Language Development
A.4. Activities ("You can):

  • Use the child's primary language, when possible."

Maryland Model for School Readiness (MMSR): Framework and Standards for Prekindergarten, 6th Edition [PDF, 336KB] (2009)

Language and Literacy Development
Introduction
"Sensitivity to cultural diversity and varied family background is vital."

Massachusetts

Early Education and Care Policies and Guidelines for Children Whose Home Languages are other than or in addition to English [PDF, 1MB] (2010)

Introduction
"[D]evelop language policies and practices that support best practices in early education and care programs serving children DLLs], from birth to 8 and their families, and for implementation by providers and programs throughout the mixed delivery system within...Massachusetts. EEC's vision and mission for this project is to create policies and recommendations that inform educators about recommended practices and approaches for use with dual language learners and their families, serve as a foundation for professional development activities, and assist educators to implement assessment and teaching practices that are supportive of dual language learners including children and youth with disabilities. The policy recommendations and practices also reflect supportive family engagement practices with multilingual families..."

Massachusetts Early Learning Guidelines for Infants and Toddlers [PDF, 1MB] (2010)

Guiding Principles

  • Rich, responsive language experiences, in the family's home language when possible, prime children for later academic success.

Introduction to Infant Stage (2.1)
"...It is more productive to give infants the opportunity to feel and/or taste different textures, hear languages (both English and home language)..."
Language and Communication Learning Guidelines (2.3)

  • The infant demonstrates the meaning of language by listening "Support infant's use of home language by talking to, reading and singing in home language."
  • The infant engages in pre-reading activities Suggested learning experience – "Label environment in two or more languages differentiated by color."
  • The infant develops in multiple language acquisitions when considered a dual language learner Includes 2 indicators with multiple suggested experiences (LC22 and LC23).

Learning Experiences for Language and Literacy
Responding to the Individual Differences of Children

"A child's language development is embedded in the context of their family, both immediate and extended; the community, and the values, norms and customs of their culture." Also includes section on Dual Language Learners.

Each domain includes a section on Responding to Individual Differences of Children, some of which address the importance of home/preferred language, and Respecting the Diversity of Families which addresses cultural differences.

The Connection: Massachusetts Guidelines for Preschool Learning Experiences and WIDA Early English Language Development Standards [PDF, 3MB] (2015)

(Downloadable PDF from WIDA Early Language Development Standards)

Introduction
ECE programs are only beginning to understand how to accommodate the linguistic needs of young dual language learners DLLs, children who are still developing their home language as they acquire English)...Unfortunately, a strong potential for inaccuracy exists when assessing, supporting, and instructing young DLLs within standards-based curriculum due in part to the disconnect between DLLs' linguistic variations and states' performance benchmarks/indicators in ELS (Espinosa, 2012; Scott-Little, C., Lesko, J., Martella, J., & Milburn, P, 2007). "

Early English Language Development (E-ELD) Standards
"The...Early English Language Development (E-ELD) Standards were specifically developed to help support the unique language needs of DLLs, ages 2.5–5.5 years, who are in the process of learning more than one language prior to Kindergarten entry. Because language learning occurs across all areas of standards-based curricula, it is critical that ECE programs use language standards in conjunction with ELS when supporting, instructing, and assessing DLLs. Using language standards along with ELS helps practitioners concretely connect the linguistic variations and needs of DLLs across all content areas of standards-based curricula and assessments. As such, language standards provide a means for helping to close the gap that currently exists in delivering accurate and relevant instruction and assessment to DLLs at varying levels of English language development within standards-based curriculum."

Figure A: The Correspondence Between the Five Dimensions of Children's Development and the E-ELD Standards
Venn diagrams show the overlapping approaches to learning. Discussion of integrating E-ELD Standards-based curriculum, instruction and assessment for DLLs.

"Using the six WIDA E-ELD Standards to inform their practice, practitioners will not find a prescriptive list of what DLLs need to know and be able to do in a particular instructional setting. Rather, language standards are generative in the sense that they help practitioners develop their own representations of how DLLs will use language in particular ECE communities. This involves connecting information about DLLs' language development with awareness of the language demands of a learning activity, and integrating language supports to maximize DLLs' learning and participation."

"While language standards provide guidance and reference points in organizing instruction to support both learning and language development, they are only one of many factors to consider in supporting DLLs' success in ECE settings...."

Figure B: The WIDA Early English Language Development Standards

  • Standard 1
    "Dual language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for success in the area of Social and Emotional Development"
  • Standard 2
    "Dual language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Early Language Development and Literacy "
  • Standard 3
    "Dual language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Mathematics"
  • Standard 4
    "Dual language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Science"
  • Standard 5
    "Dual language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Social Studies"
  • Standard 6
    "Dual language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Physical Development"

Understanding the WIDA Standards Framework
[T]he WIDA Standards Framework components help practitioners identify and understand the receptive and expressive language that DLLs need in order to meet performance benchmarks/indicators across the...Guidelines for Preschool Learning Experiences. Specific consideration has been given to the nature of early language and cognitive development, family and community-based sociocultural contexts for language learning, and the psycholinguistic nature of second language development in preschoolers who are still developing the foundational structures and rules of language. [P]ractitioners and program leaders are encouraged to emphasize specific elements of the Framework in their language instruction to fit the specific needs of individual DLLs and contexts.

Developmentally Appropriate Academic Language
"[T]he E-ELD Features have been adapted and renamed to fit the unique characteristics of young DLLs' developing linguistic abilities during the early preschool years."

  • "Linguistic Complexity refers to the quantity and variety of language used by DLLs at the discourse level. Language features such as the length of utterances/interactions and how DLLs understand and express their ideas are included in this category."

Performance Definitions
"The Performance Definitions shape each of the three levels of English language development using the Features of Developmentally Appropriate Language as criteria. The three language levels, which outline the progression of early English language development are: Level 1— Entering, Level 3—Developing, and Level 5—Bridging. These language levels correspond to the five WIDA levels of language development for English language learners, K–12, but pertain uniquely to the stages of English language development in DLLs, ages 2.5–5.5."

"The Performance Definitions describe the language that DLLs can process and produce toward the end of each level of English language development when given language supports. These definitions do not represent all the possible skills that children will demonstrate at a particular level of language development. However, they do provide concrete guidelines as to the kinds of language practitioners might expect DLLs to understand or produce..."

Figure E, Figure F, Figure G, Figure H
At all levels of language development, home language and English language development

  • Influence and reinforce each other; and
  • Mediate understanding, construction of meaning, and demonstration of knowledge."

At the very beginning stages of English language development, dual language learners typically understand more words than they are able to produce. Children may be non-verbal in English and rely primarily on their home language and/or gestures to communicate their needs, wants, and ideas.

At the very beginning stages of English language development, dual language learners typically understand more words than they are able to produce. Children may be non-verbal in English and rely primarily on their home language and/or gestures to communicate their needs, wants, and ideas.

"...DLLs cannot be represented through a single language development level...or even levels for each language domain...Instead, language is fluid and often varies based on the context for language use. "

"The Performance Definitions also recognize the key role that home language plays at all levels of English language development. DLLs will continue to use home language as they develop their new language. The dynamic interaction between languages supports meaning making and the development of metalinguistic awareness. When the development of two languages is strongly encouraged and effectively supported, DLLs use all of their cognitive and linguistic assets to become successful language learners. "

"In short, engaging in translanguaging enables DLLs to use their entire linguistic repertoire to navigate between languages..."

Standards Matrices and Strands of Model Performance Indicators
"[T]he matrices help...practitioners envision what the E-ELD Standards Framework look like for different DLLs....The Strands of MPIs provide a consistent structure for.. ECE practitioners to use when scaffolding or assessing DLLs' language across a wide range of learning activities and environments. These strands are meant to be examples and not fixed guidelines of the language with which DLLs may engage during instruction and assessment."

Using WIDA E-ELD Standards...
"[T]he E-ELD Standards are designed to be used in tandem with ELS to guide and inform instruction and assessment for DLLs."

"Figure I...shows language for DLLs who are 2.5- 3.5 years old..."

"In the matrix, the example context for language use refers to the particular situation, event, or context in which the communication occurs. DLLs use language in particular ways that vary according to the context....[I]n Figure I, DLLs will talk about and dramatize ways they travel from one place to another in small group settings. This provides us information about factors in the context that may impact how children use or process language. "

"The cognitive function is a reminder to...practitioners that DLLs need access to the same level of thinking as their peers regardless of their language development level. In the example shown in the...example matrix, all DLLs will be asked to apply their knowledge about travel as they participate in the activity, regardless of individual linguistic abilities."

"The E-ELD Standards Framework includes two language domains—receptive and expressive. These language domains, with their focus on oral language development, encompass the listening and speaking and overall meaning-making skills (e.g., gestures) DLLs will need and use across all six standards."

Strands of Model Performance Indicators
"In the example shown in the...example matrix, you see how DLLs at Entering level may need to repeat words in this context, while DLLs at the Developing level may be able to name the same words independently. This is not to say that a DLL at the Entering level is not able to name the vehicles and actions, but that he or she may be able to do so in a language other than English, or through signs or gestures. Similarly, a DLL at the Bridging level has enough language to describe vehicles and actions...While the DLL at the Developing level may be trying to describe to someone else, he or she will use language features related to naming to accomplish the same purpose for language use...Practitioners can use strands to...(b) create language targets and objectives that go beyond DLLs' independent level of language development and (c) differentiate the language of the content to match the level of DLLs' language development."

"In the matrix, the example context for language use refers to the particular situation, event, or context in which the communication occurs. DLLs use language in particular ways that vary according to the context....[I]n Figure I, DLLs will talk about and dramatize ways they travel from one place to another in small group settings. This provides us information about factors in the context that may impact how children use or process language."

"Language functions describe how DLLs will produce or process language within specific context for learning...DLLs at all language levels can engage in higher level thinking according to their developmental capacity."

"The third element of the MPI...illustrates the importance of scaffolding language development for DLLs. WIDA names three categories of language supports for DLLs: sensory, graphic, and interactive."

"...Although DLLs may be at different points in their language development trajectory, when learning particular content, certain specific and technical developmentally appropriate language is essential for engaging in learning the ideas and concepts presented. Through the use of scaffolds and supports, DLLs should have the opportunity to interact with that language."

Customizing Strands for Your Local Context
"The WIDA Strands of MPIs are examples that illustrate differentiated language expectations related to content-area instruction within one language domain. We invite...practitioners to create, innovate, transform, and customize the strands to best meet the needs of their DLLs and language education programs. Figure J shows the guiding questions practitioners should ask themselves when planning instruction for emerging bilinguals or when drafting customized Strands of MPIs."

E-ELD Standard: Example Topic
Language Domain(s): How will dual language learners process and use language?

    A Strand of Model Performance Indicators:
  • What language are DLLs expected to process or produce at each level of development?
  • Which language supports...are necessary for DLLs to access language and content?

Crosswalk Between Massachusetts Guidelines for Preschool Learning Experiences and WIDA Early English Language Development Standards
"The graphic found at the end of this document, Figure N, illustrates the crosswalk between...Guidelines for Preschool Learning Experiences and WIDA E-ELD Standards. This connection document can be used as a resource...in order to plan for and implement language support for.. DLLs."

Integrated Strands
Figure M. List of Sample Integrated Strands - WIDA E-ELD Standards – Complementary Strands
"Integrated Strand: The Language of Science: Dual language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Science."

"[W]e invite...Early Childhood practitioners and specialists to customize their own Complementary and Integrated Strands of Model Performance Indicators using the crosswalk between...Guidelines for Preschool Learning Experiences and WIDA E-ELD Standards as an initial resource...ensur[ing] consistent language support and instruction for all DLLs."

Figure N: Crosswalk Between...Guidelines for Preschool Learning Experiences and WIDA E-ELD Standards
The following Crosswalks include information on DLLs

  • English Language Arts
  • Mathematics
  • Science and Technology/Engineering
  • History and Social Science
  • Health Education
  • Arts

Appendix A: Selected References
Espinosa, Linda M., Eugene García. (2012). Developmental Assessment of Young Dual Language Learners with a Focus on Kindergarten Entry Assessments: Implications for State Policies. Working paper #1, Center for Early Care and Education Research-Dual Language Learners (ECERDLL), Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, The University of North Carolina, November 2012.

Early Childhood Program Standards for Three and Four Year Olds [PDF, 905KB] (2003)

Standards:

  • Area 1: Interactions Between Staff and Children, and Among Children
    C 2: "Staff provide all children, including those with disabilities or whose first language is not English, with equal opportunities to take part in all activities…"
  • Area 2: Curriculum and Assessment
    D 3: "…There are goals for social/emotional development, cognitive development, English language and literacy development, development of mathematical concepts, development of scientific concepts, self-expression in art, music, movement and dance, dramatic play, health, and physical development..."
  • Area 4: Family Involvement
    A 1: "Whenever possible, written information is translated into the parent(s)' native language and/or translation supports are provided or referred."
    B 3: "Programs assist families whose primary language is other than English, or who require use of alternative communication methods, to understand the program."
    F 1: "There is a verbal and/or written system of communication in the parent's preferred language, when reasonable, for sharing information between staff and parents."
  • Area 5: Staff Qualifications and Staff Development
    H 1: "The program encourages staff to continue their education at gain knowledge, skills and experience in… communication/relations with families, working with culturally and/or linguistically diverse children/families..."
  • Area 10: Administration
    G 2: "Program policies and information are provided to all parents and staff in their preferred language, when reasonable."
    G 5 (h): "Policies and procedures include but are not limited to...services available including...services for children from linguistically and culturally diverse families"

Michigan

Early Childhood Standards of Quality for Infant and Toddler Programs [PDF, 2MB] (2013)

Early Development and Learning Strands for Infants and Toddlers
Introduction
"This section…is meant to apply to all children in the birth to three age range in Michigan irrespective of gender, ability, age, ethnicity, home language or background."

Strand D: Communication
Goal 1:

  1. Confidence that their first languages [e.g., whether spoken English, a spoken language other than English, or American Sign Language (ASL)] are valued, supported, and understood."

Examples of Experiences and Strategies:

  • "The program includes role models who are home language communicators of the child's natural language...
  • Caregivers help to extend toddlers' verbal communication ability by accepting and supporting early words in their first language, modeling new words and phrases, allowing toddlers to initiate conversation, and giving them time to respond and converse."

Questions for Reflection

  1. "How fluent are caregivers in each child's home language?"
  2. "To what extent do caregivers include children's home languages when talking with them?"

Goal 2:
Examples of Experiences and Strategies:

  • "The language of the child's culture is used as well as the primary spoken and written language of the program."
  • "Children are frequently exposed to storytelling in their natural/home languages."

Strand E: Contribution
Goal 1:
"Infants and toddlers experience environments where the opportunities for learning are equitable, irrespective of gender, ability, age, home language, ethnicity, or background."

Quality Program Standards for Infant and Toddler Programs
A. The Program's Statement of Philosophy
"The philosophy statement guides decisions about how the program:"

  • "Promotes a climate of acceptance and inclusion by enrolling children of varying cultural, ethnic, linguistic, and racial backgrounds who have a range of abilities and special needs."
  1. Program Standard: A philosophy statement is comprehensive...

"A Quality Program:

  1. Uses the philosophy statement to address the social, economic, cultural, linguistic, and familial needs of the community served by the program."

D. Staffing and Administrative Support and Professional Development
"Relevant professional development topics include but are not limited to:"

  • "Knowledge about and understanding of cultural and linguistic diversity, cultural competence;
  • How to work with families whose primary language is different from the primary language used by staff in the program..."

E. An Environment of Care and Learning
Activities and Experiences (Standards 16 through 20)
"Activities and experiences are consistent with and support reasonable expectations for infants' and toddlers' development and learning, including those with special needs, and are culturally and linguistically responsive."

PROGRAM STRUCTURE: STANDARDS 1 THROUGH 7

  1. Program Standard: "The program's policies, procedures, and practices promote, respect, and support the inclusion and full participation of infants and toddlers with special needs."
  2. Program Standard: "The program's policies, procedures, and practices promote, respect, and support the inclusion and full participation of infants and toddlers with home languages that differ from the primary language used in the program."

"A Quality Program:

  1. Integrates dual language learning opportunities into all aspects of the program;
  2. Provides books and other materials which reflect the home languages of the families whose infants and toddlers are enrolled in the program."

SPACE, EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS STANDARDS 13-15

  1. Program Standard: Equipment, toys, materials, and furniture are supportive of the abilities and developmental level of each child.

"A Quality Program:

  1. Provides materials, equipment, and activities that reflect each child's culture, developmental abilities, individual learning styles, and home language."

F. Child Assessment and Program Evaluation

  1. Program Standard: The program implements policies and procedures for the appropriate use of screening, assessment, and evaluation tools.

"A Quality Program:

  1. Uses instruments that respect and perform adequately when assessing children's developmental, cultural, and linguistic diversity and that of their families."

Early Childhood Standards of Quality for Prekindergarten [PDF, 7MB] (2013)

Early Learning Expectations for Three- and Four-Year Old Children
Creative Arts

  1. Examples of What Children Experience
    In the Visual Arts:
  • "Support for dual language learners in learning new ‘art' processes or creative and descriptive vocabulary from both teachers and peers."

Language and Early Literacy Development:

  1. Early Learning Expectation: Spoken Language: Expressive.
    Emerging Indicators
    9. "Show progress in speaking both their home language and English (if non-English-speaking children)."
  2. Early Learning Expectation: Spoken Language: Receptive.
    Emerging Indicators
    7. "Show progress in listening to and understanding both their home language and English (if non-English-speaking children)."
  3. Early Learning Expectation: Diversity of Communication.
    Emerging Indicators
    2. "Become aware of the value of the language used in their homes."

Examples of What Children Experience
Opportunities in Emergent Reading:

  • "Participation in a rich and responsive language and literacy environment using English and the home language of the child as often as possible."

Dual Language Learning (DLL)
Commonly Used Definitions: Dual Language Learners:
Approaches

  • "The best entry into literacy is a child's first language. Literacy in a child's first language establishes a knowledge, concept and skills base that transfers from first language reading to reading in a second language.
  • Learning opportunities should be integrated into all content areas using strategies that support Dual Language Learning.
  • Bilingualism is a benefit to future learning and achievement."

Influences on Progress in Dual Language Learning
"Children make progress in learning more than one language through:

  • Both maturation and the trajectory of second language acquisition;
  • Age of entry into an 'English' speaking environment;
  • Extent of first language acquisition;
  • Extent of support from the learning environment/program/classroom; and,
  • The extent of culturally responsive teaching."
  1. Early Learning Expectations: Receptive English Language Skills
    "Children demonstrate an increasing ability to comprehend or understand the English language at an appropriate developmental level."
  2. Early Learning Expectations: Expressive English Language Skills
    "Children demonstrate an increasing ability to speak or use English at an appropriate developmental level."
  3. Early Learning Expectations: Engagement in English Literacy Activities
    Children demonstrate increased understanding and response to books, storytelling, and songs presented in English and increased participation in English literacy activities.
  4. Early Learning Expectations: Engagement in Writing
    Children demonstrate an increasing ability to write words or engage in early stages of writing in English.
  5. Early Learning Expectations: Social Interaction
    Children interact with peers in play, classroom and social situations using English with increasing ability and comfort; use first language when appropriate and share home culture.

Examples of What Children Experience
Receptive English Language Experiences:

  • "A daily routine that supports language acquisition and understanding of common words and phrase."

Expressive English Language Experiences

  • "Encouragement to verbally express thoughts and questions in both first and second language.
  • Helpful demonstrations and explanations, as appropriate, to build concept understanding in English and their first language."

Engagement in English Literacy Activities

  • Many opportunities to practice language in both organized groups and free play with peers.

Engagement in Writing:

  • Acceptance and encouragement to use emergent writing for longer periods of time than English speakers.
  • A print rich environment where children can find useful words in print around the room.
  • Encouragement to include home language in their writing.

Social Interaction:

  • "Interest in the child's culture and experiences prior to this classroom. These prior experiences are utilized to make connections and build self-confidence."

What Teachers and Other Adults Do
For Receptive English Language Skills:

  • "Whenever possible, provide instruction in the child's first language.
  • Pair bilingual and monolingual staff if possible."

For Expressive English Language Skills:

  • "Talk with families about their home/first language and expectations for their children.
  • Remember that oral language development in either language supports literacy development in both languages.
  • Accept 'code switching' or language mixing for young learners."

Social Interaction:

  • "Accept both first language and English when children are describing their home and life outside of school."

Technology Literacy-Early Learning in Technology (TL)
Examples of What Children Experience:

  • "Access to language translation software for those who are learning another language." Teachers and Other Adults: "…Take advantage of technology that supports children who are learning two languages…"

Social, Emotional and Physical Health and Development
Early Learning Expectation: Personal Safety
Examples of What Children Experience:

In Social and Emotional Development:

  • "Personal greetings, appropriate encouragement, and sufficient support to feel a sense of belonging each day with special care to include children who are Dual Language Learners or new to the community.
  • "...labels and visuals are reflective of children and their languages..."

In Health:

  • Use the child's first language, as well as the primary spoken and written language of the program, especially to communicate a dangerous situation or an immediate need; e.g., "Be careful!" "Hot!" "Stop!""

Early Learning in Mathematics
7. Early Learning Expectation: Geometry
Examples of What Children Experience:

Math Practices:

  • "Access to and the opportunity to learn key words orally and in print from their first language and English..."

Early Learning in Science
3. Early Learning Expectation: Knowledge about the Earth
Observation and Inquiry:

Examples of What Children Experience

  • "An environment with rich content vocabulary and support to understand age appropriate scientific language for both native English speakers and dual language learners."

What Teachers and Other Adults Can Do: "…Provide additional time to make accommodations, explain or expand new science content words in English to dual language learners…"

The Program's Statement of Philosophy
Guides decisions about how the program:

  • "Promotes a climate of acceptance and inclusion by enrolling children of varying cultural, ethnic, linguistic, and racial backgrounds who have a range of abilities and special needs."
  • "Establishes a warm, stimulating, and multi-sensory environment filled with culturally, linguistically and developmentally appropriate materials and activities."

Staffing and Administrative Support and Professional Development
6. Program Standard: To achieve optimum educational outcomes..."
"A Quality Program:

  1. Hires staff that reflect the primary language of the children in the classroom or dual language speakers to create high functioning classrooms."

The Partnership with Families
1. Program Standard: "Families have multiple opportunities for regular involvement..."
"A Quality Program:

  1. Holds formal and informal parent-teacher conferences (with translation or language supports, if necessary)...
  2. Employs methods of regular written, digital and verbal communication using an appropriate literacy level and the home language when possible.
  3. Arranges for staff members to initiate other means of communication with parents who do not attend conferences/meetings or do not respond to teacher-initiated communications or need language translation or assistance."

4. Program Standard: "The program's policies and practices promote support..."
"A Quality Program:

  1. Supports staff in learning key words from the child's home language and their English equivalents.
  2. Provides books and materials that reflect families' home languages and culture, as well as that of others in the community.
  3. Communicates with the family in their preferred language or mode of communication and seeks translation/ translators as needed."

The Learning Environment:
Curriculum

  1. Program Standard: "The philosophy and the program's policies and practices support an appropriate environment and adult guidance for the participation of children with...home languages other than English."
  2. Program Standard: "The curriculum is designed to provide a developmentally and linguistically appropriate environment..."

Relationships and Climate
1. Program Standard: "The program is structured to enhance children's feelings..."

"A Quality Program:

  1. Accepts and values children's primary languages and uses them as a means for communication."

Teaching Practices
"Environments are created that reflect the culture and language of the children."
Facilities, Materials, and Equipment
5. Program Standard: Computer software used...reflects the program's curriculum... "
"A Quality Program:

  1. Assures that software and application images and content are reflective of the cultures and languages of children in the program."

Child Assessment and Program Evaluation:
"Options for gathering and reporting information are numerous; however, it is critical that the methods selected are sensitive to variations of culture, race, class, gender, language, and ability among young children and their families."

1. Program Standard: The program...measures to plan learning experiences..."
"A Quality Program:

  1. Uses valid and reliable assessment tools and processes that are continuous, ongoing, cumulative, and in the language that the child understands.

5. Program Standard: Assessment tools...are used in an appropriate manner."
"A Quality Program:

  1. Uses instruments that respect and perform adequately when assessing children's developmental, cultural, and linguistic diversity and that of their families."

Minnesota

Standards: 0-3
Individual Differences
"The experiences of infants and toddlers in learning the language and behaviors of their family must be supported by other early care and education settings where young children spend time...Meaningful caregiver strategies acknowledge and incorporate cultural practices..."

Potential uses of early learning guidelines
"Many factors, including the culture and language background...must be taken into account as learning experiences are planned and implemented."

Domain II: Language Development and Communication (toddler)

  • Case Studies "Sometimes Ubah's mother tells the story in her own language even if the book is written in English."
  • Examples of behaviors that show development of communicating and speaking "Uses home language with a vocabulary of 50 or more words or signs and sometimes uses two- or three-word sentences."

Early Childhood Indicators of Progress: Minnesota's Early Learning Standards [PDF, 7MB] (2005)

Standards
Potential Uses
"Each child's culture and language background, developmental level, learning style, and personal interests must be taken into account as learning experiences are implemented...The framework promotes diversity and equity in terms of what children do, how children show what they know, and what constitutes success."

Domain III: Language and Literacy Development
In Strategies and Indicators, references to importance of communicating in "home language and/or English" to foster children's speaking skills.

Early Childhood Indicators of Progress: Minnesota's Early Learning Guidelines for Birth to 3 [PDF, 321KB] (2007)

Mississippi

Mississippi Early Learning Guidelines for Infants and Toddlers [PDF, 789KB] (2010)

Guidelines: Infants/Toddlers
No reference to dual language learners or home language development.

Social-Emotional Development: Self Awareness (4.3.3.)
"If you have children from second language homes, learn to name the body parts in their languages. Use these words when you ask them to point to what they see in the mirror."

Early Learning Standards for Classrooms Serving Three-Year-Old Children [PDF, 247KB] (2013)

No mention of dual language learners or home language development.

Early Learning Standards for Classrooms Serving Four-Year-Old Children [PDF, 275KB] (2013)

No mention of dual language learners or home language development.

Missouri

Missouri Early Learning Standards

Literacy Standards
Parent Guide available in Spanish & Bosnian

Social and Emotional Standards
Parent Guide available in Bosnian

The only reference to home language development is in both Teacher and Parent guides: Standards for Literacy

  • II. Speaking/Expressive Language
  • 1.a. "Communicates in home language and is understood by others" (includes sign language).

Montana

Montana Early Learning Standards [PDF, 3MB] (2014)

Standards: 0-5
Introduction
Early Learning Principles

  • Culture:
    "Respect and appreciation for each child's cultural, racial, and linguistic heritage are a valuable and important part of his or her development. [Th]e ELS reinforce healthy partnerships between families, early childhood educators, and communities, in developing culturally and linguistically competent practices and services to support young children."
  • Dual Language Learners:
    "[Th]e acquisition of language is essential to children's cognitive and social development. Regardless of what language children speak, they still develop and learn (Responding to Linguistic and Cultural Diversity Recommendations for E[ff]ective Early Childhood Education, A position statement of NAEYC, 1995). Research indicates that developing and maintaining a child's [fi]rst language supports and facilitates learning of the second language."
  • Relationships:
    "…A child's home language must be respected as the basis for learning a second language. That fact is recognized by the National Education Goals Panel, based on research that a child's learning is complex, and is influenced by cultural and contextual factors (NAEYC, 1995)…"

Core Domain 3: Communication
Introduction
Teacher-Child Relationships:
"Many children come from families with a home language other than English. Learning their home language is an important part of maintaining relationships at home and their ability to develop concepts and thinking skills. Dual language learners face extra challenges as they learn to communicate."

Communication and Language Development
Standard 3.4 – English Language Learners: Dual Language Acquisition

"Children develop competency in their home language while becoming proficient in English."

Nebraska

Nebraska Early Learning Guidelines for Ages 3 to 5 [PDF, 8MB] (2013)

Guiding Principles Supporting Children's Learning and Development
"The child's language, knowledge, traditions, and family expectations are the primary influences in development. Respect for family culture and language is essential for children to feel pride in themselves and their heritage."

The Adult and the Learning Environment
"The adult directs the child's learning by:

  • Drawing upon the cultural and linguistic skills and knowledge each child brings with them."

The Child and the Learning Environment
"Play is also a primary way for young English language learners to develop language skills and for native English speakers to develop cultural competence and appreciation for their peers who are linguistically diverse (Espinosa, 2005)."

Inclusive Learning Environments
Children from a variety of cultures and English-language learners "It is important to create an environment that reflects diversity in our society, using items that represent the people and objects that accurately reflect children's languages and cultures in a respectful and authentic way."

"Adults should:

  • Offer opportunities for children and families to experience their home language in written and spoken language whenever possible.
  • Strive for bilingual staff to facilitate dual language instruction and family communication.
  • Extend children's learning of their home language while extending their learning of English."

Each domain includes:
Strategies Supporting English Language Learners
Strategies Supporting Children from a Variety of Cultures

Language and Literacy Development domain also includes:
Listening and Understanding (LL.01)
Widely Held Expectations - "Child demonstrates understanding of native and/or English languages for social interactions and program directions/activities."
Learning in Action: Examples
"The Environment Includes: Stories, songs, words, games and daily schedules in English and the languages of the non-English speaking children."

Phonological Awareness (LL.03)
Learning in Action: Examples

"The Adult: "Provides opportunities for children to hear sounds in their home language."

Nebraska Early Learning Guidelines for Ages Birth to 3 [PDF, 1MB]

(Available in Spanish)

Introduction

  • Supporting Inclusive Learning Environments "Inclusion of children with differing abilities, children from diverse cultures, and children learning English as a second language fosters caring attitudes and teaches children about interdependence and acceptance of human differences."
  • Children of Diverse Cultures "Some children may speak a home language, or first language, other than English, thus calling upon the adults to extend the child's learning of a new language while supporting and strengthening the home language. Linguistic and cultural diversity must be integrated into all aspects of the program...The adult uses opportunities to integrate each child and family's cultural uniqueness into the curriculum and weave it into the fabric of everyday learning experiences."

Domains

  • Language and Literacy: Listening and Understanding "Child demonstrates understanding of native and/or English languages for social interactions and program directions/activities." Examples: "Adult: Pairs non-English speaking children with bilingual peers/adults."
  • Environment "Stories, songs, words, games and daily schedules in English and the languages of the non-English speaking children."
  • Speaking and Communicating "Child uses English or native language to share feelings and express ideas."

Nevada

The Connection: Nevada Pre-Kindergarten Standards and WIDA Early English Language Development Standards [For ages 2.5-5.5] (2015)

(Downloadable PDF from WIDA Early Language Development Standards)

Introduction
ECE programs are only beginning to understand how to accommodate the linguistic needs of young dual language learners DLLs, children who are still developing their home language as they acquire English)...Unfortunately, a strong potential for inaccuracy exists when assessing, supporting, and instructing young DLLs within standards-based curriculum due in part to the disconnect between DLLs' linguistic variations and states' performance benchmarks/indicators in ELS (Espinosa, 2012; Scott-Little, C., Lesko, J., Martella, J., & Milburn, P, 2007). "

Early English Language Development (E-ELD) Standards
"The...Early English Language Development (E-ELD) Standards were specifically developed to help support the unique language needs of DLLs, ages 2.5–5.5 years, who are in the process of learning more than one language prior to Kindergarten entry. Because language learning occurs across all areas of standards-based curricula, it is critical that ECE programs use language standards in conjunction with ELS when supporting, instructing, and assessing DLLs. Using language standards along with ELS helps practitioners concretely connect the linguistic variations and needs of DLLs across all content areas of standards-based curricula and assessments. As such, language standards provide a means for helping to close the gap that currently exists in delivering accurate and relevant instruction and assessment to DLLs at varying levels of English language development within standards-based curriculum."

Figure A: The Correspondence Between the Five Dimensions of Children's Development and the E-ELD Standards
Venn diagrams show the overlapping approaches to learning. Discussion of integrating E-ELD Standards-based curriculum, instruction and assessment for DLLs.

"Using the six WIDA E-ELD Standards to inform their practice, practitioners will not find a prescriptive list of what DLLs need to know and be able to do in a particular instructional setting. Rather, language standards are generative in the sense that they help practitioners develop their own representations of how DLLs will use language in particular ECE communities. This involves connecting information about DLLs' language development with awareness of the language demands of a learning activity, and integrating language supports to maximize DLLs' learning and participation."

"While language standards provide guidance and reference points in organizing instruction to support both learning and language development, they are only one of many factors to consider in supporting DLLs' success in ECE settings...."

Figure B: The WIDA Early English Language Development Standards

  • Standard 1
    "Dual language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for success in the area of Social and Emotional Development"
  • Standard 2
    "Dual language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Early Language Development and Literacy "
  • Standard 3
    "Dual language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Mathematics"
  • Standard 4
    "Dual language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Science"
  • Standard 5
    "Dual language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Social Studies"
  • Standard 6
    "Dual language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Physical Development"

Understanding the WIDA Standards Framework
[T]he WIDA Standards Framework components help practitioners identify and understand the receptive and expressive language that DLLs need in order to meet performance benchmarks/indicators across the...Guidelines for Preschool Learning Experiences. Specific consideration has been given to the nature of early language and cognitive development, family and community-based sociocultural contexts for language learning, and the psycholinguistic nature of second language development in preschoolers who are still developing the foundational structures and rules of language. [P]ractitioners and program leaders are encouraged to emphasize specific elements of the Framework in their language instruction to fit the specific needs of individual DLLs and contexts.

Developmentally Appropriate Academic Language
"[T]he E-ELD Features have been adapted and renamed to fit the unique characteristics of young DLLs' developing linguistic abilities during the early preschool years."

  • "Linguistic Complexity refers to the quantity and variety of language used by DLLs at the discourse level. Language features such as the length of utterances/interactions and how DLLs understand and express their ideas are included in this category."

Performance Definitions
"The Performance Definitions shape each of the three levels of English language development using the Features of Developmentally Appropriate Language as criteria. The three language levels, which outline the progression of early English language development are: Level 1— Entering, Level 3—Developing, and Level 5—Bridging. These language levels correspond to the five WIDA levels of language development for English language learners, K–12, but pertain uniquely to the stages of English language development in DLLs, ages 2.5–5.5."

"The Performance Definitions describe the language that DLLs can process and produce toward the end of each level of English language development when given language supports. These definitions do not represent all the possible skills that children will demonstrate at a particular level of language development. However, they do provide concrete guidelines as to the kinds of language practitioners might expect DLLs to understand or produce..."

Figure E, Figure F, Figure G, Figure H
At all levels of language development, home language and English language development

  • Influence and reinforce each other; and
  • Mediate understanding, construction of meaning, and demonstration of knowledge."

At the very beginning stages of English language development, dual language learners typically understand more words than they are able to produce. Children may be non-verbal in English and rely primarily on their home language and/or gestures to communicate their needs, wants, and ideas.

At the very beginning stages of English language development, dual language learners typically understand more words than they are able to produce. Children may be non-verbal in English and rely primarily on their home language and/or gestures to communicate their needs, wants, and ideas.

"...DLLs cannot be represented through a single language development level...or even levels for each language domain...Instead, language is fluid and often varies based on the context for language use. "

"The Performance Definitions also recognize the key role that home language plays at all levels of English language development. DLLs will continue to use home language as they develop their new language. The dynamic interaction between languages supports meaning making and the development of metalinguistic awareness. When the development of two languages is strongly encouraged and effectively supported, DLLs use all of their cognitive and linguistic assets to become successful language learners. "

"In short, engaging in translanguaging enables DLLs to use their entire linguistic repertoire to navigate between languages..."

Standards Matrices and Strands of Model Performance Indicators
"[T]he matrices help...practitioners envision what the E-ELD Standards Framework look like for different DLLs....The Strands of MPIs provide a consistent structure for.. ECE practitioners to use when scaffolding or assessing DLLs' language across a wide range of learning activities and environments. These strands are meant to be examples and not fixed guidelines of the language with which DLLs may engage during instruction and assessment."

Using WIDA E-ELD Standards...
"[T]he E-ELD Standards are designed to be used in tandem with ELS to guide and inform instruction and assessment for DLLs."

"Figure I...shows language for DLLs who are 2.5- 3.5 years old..."

"In the matrix, the example context for language use refers to the particular situation, event, or context in which the communication occurs. DLLs use language in particular ways that vary according to the context....[I]n Figure I, DLLs will talk about and dramatize ways they travel from one place to another in small group settings. This provides us information about factors in the context that may impact how children use or process language. "

"The cognitive function is a reminder to...practitioners that DLLs need access to the same level of thinking as their peers regardless of their language development level. In the example shown in the...example matrix, all DLLs will be asked to apply their knowledge about travel as they participate in the activity, regardless of individual linguistic abilities."

"The E-ELD Standards Framework includes two language domains—receptive and expressive. These language domains, with their focus on oral language development, encompass the listening and speaking and overall meaning-making skills (e.g., gestures) DLLs will need and use across all six standards."

Strands of Model Performance Indicators
"In the example shown in the...example matrix, you see how DLLs at Entering level may need to repeat words in this context, while DLLs at the Developing level may be able to name the same words independently. This is not to say that a DLL at the Entering level is not able to name the vehicles and actions, but that he or she may be able to do so in a language other than English, or through signs or gestures. Similarly, a DLL at the Bridging level has enough language to describe vehicles and actions...While the DLL at the Developing level may be trying to describe to someone else, he or she will use language features related to naming to accomplish the same purpose for language use...Practitioners can use strands to...(b) create language targets and objectives that go beyond DLLs' independent level of language development and (c) differentiate the language of the content to match the level of DLLs' language development."

"In the matrix, the example context for language use refers to the particular situation, event, or context in which the communication occurs. DLLs use language in particular ways that vary according to the context....[I]n Figure I, DLLs will talk about and dramatize ways they travel from one place to another in small group settings. This provides us information about factors in the context that may impact how children use or process language."

"Language functions describe how DLLs will produce or process language within specific context for learning...DLLs at all language levels can engage in higher level thinking according to their developmental capacity."

"The third element of the MPI...illustrates the importance of scaffolding language development for DLLs. WIDA names three categories of language supports for DLLs: sensory, graphic, and interactive."

"...Although DLLs may be at different points in their language development trajectory, when learning particular content, certain specific and technical developmentally appropriate language is essential for engaging in learning the ideas and concepts presented. Through the use of scaffolds and supports, DLLs should have the opportunity to interact with that language."

Customizing Strands for Your Local Context
"The WIDA Strands of MPIs are examples that illustrate differentiated language expectations related to content-area instruction within one language domain. We invite...practitioners to create, innovate, transform, and customize the strands to best meet the needs of their DLLs and language education programs. Figure J shows the guiding questions practitioners should ask themselves when planning instruction for emerging bilinguals or when drafting customized Strands of MPIs."

E-ELD Standard: Example Topic
Language Domain(s): How will dual language learners process and use language?

    A Strand of Model Performance Indicators:
  • What language are DLLs expected to process or produce at each level of development?
  • Which language supports...are necessary for DLLs to access language and content?

Crosswalk Between Nevada Guidelines for Preschool Learning Experiences and WIDA Early English Language Development Standards
"The graphic found at the end of this document, Figure N, illustrates the crosswalk between...Guidelines for Preschool Learning Experiences and WIDA E-ELD Standards. This connection document can be used as a resource...in order to plan for and implement language support for.. DLLs."

Integrated Strands
Figure M. List of Sample Integrated Strands - WIDA E-ELD Standards – Complementary Strands
"Integrated Strand: The Language of Science: Dual language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Science."

"[W]e invite...Early Childhood practitioners and specialists to customize their own Complementary and Integrated Strands of Model Performance Indicators using the crosswalk between...Guidelines for Preschool Learning Experiences and WIDA E-ELD Standards as an initial resource...ensur[ing] consistent language support and instruction for all DLLs."

Figure N: Crosswalk Between...Guidelines for Preschool Learning Experiences and WIDA E-ELD Standards
The following Crosswalks include information on DLLs

  • English Language Arts
  • Mathematics
  • Science and Technology/Engineering
  • History and Social Science
  • Health Education
  • Arts

Appendix A: Selected References
Espinosa, Linda M., Eugene García. (2012). Developmental Assessment of Young Dual Language Learners with a Focus on Kindergarten Entry Assessments: Implications for State Policies. Working paper #1, Center for Early Care and Education Research-Dual Language Learners (ECERDLL), Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, The University of North Carolina, November 2012.

Nevada Pre-Kindergarten Standards (Revised and Approved: 2010)

Guiding Principles
5. Development and Learning are Embedded in Culture

Culture, Diversity and Language
"Early childhood programs that model acceptance and respect of a child's native language will help them to feel more included in the classroom. A program that supports the use of a child's home language sends the message that their culture is important while exposing them to an enriched bilingual environment. Language barriers exist when we fail to provide support for children to be successful (Howes, 2009)."

Language and Early Literacy Introduction
"[Experiences to support literacy learning include]: Adults' daily reading of high-quality books to individual children or small groups, including books that positively reflect children's identity, home language, and culture;"

"There is increased diversity among young children in pre-kindergarten programs. For example, children who are diverse, English language learners, have exceptional abilities or special needs are found in today's early childhood programs."

"Pre-kindergarten English language learners need materials and resources in their own languages in order to develop first language vocabulary and concepts. Children's competence in acquiring a second language is, in part, dependent upon the level of competence achieved in the first language. (Cummins, Crawford, 2002; Wong-Filmore, 1991; Neuman, 1999)."

Language and Early Literacy: Indicator S = Speaking (8.PK.1)
Examples: "Children will/may...Communicate effectively in native language (e.g., English, Spanish, or sign)."

New Hampshire

New Hampshire Early Learning Guidelines [PDF, 2MB]

Guidelines: 0-5
Introduction: The Development of Early Learning Guidelines
"We also recognize that...the cultural and linguistic practices of [children's] families affect their learning. For example, children whose home language is other than English, often experience an early childhood learning environment that is not reflective of their home culture and language. Adults who are responsible for implementing the Guidelines must consider cultural and linguistic factors as they support children's learning, and therefore adjust practices and expectations."

Appendix B: Glossary

  • Culture "Culture and language are critical components of a child's developmental and learning processes; therefore, classroom practices cannot be developmentally appropriate unless they are appropriate and responsive to cultural and linguistic diversity."

New Jersey

New Jersey State Department of Education: Preschool Teaching and Learning Standards [PDF, 581KB] (2014)

Background: Issues of Implementation
"The needs of preschool learners are diverse....[Children] come from many different cultural and ethnic backgrounds, and in some cases, the dominant language spoken in these homes and communities is not English."

Supporting Diversity – English Language Learners (ELL) and Multiculturalism:
"It is important that administrators and teachers acquire knowledge of the stages of second language development; and developmentally appropriate strategies, techniques and assessments to maintain, develop and support the home language, and proficiency in English. Effective instructional practices that provide young English language learners with linguistic and cognitive support must be embedded within the context of age-appropriate classroom routines, hands-on activities and lessons. Strategies for working with English language learners can be found in each section of the standards."

"A strong home, school, community connection built on mutual respect and appreciation increases opportunities for learning and collaboration. Sensitivity to and support for diversity in culture, ethnicity, language and learning must be woven into the daily activities and routines of the early childhood classroom. It is essential for teachers to understand cultural variations and practices and to create a child-centered classroom that celebrates the diversity of all the children in the classroom. Various aspects of culture can have a direct affect on verbal and non-verbal communication, and it is vital for teachers to understand, embrace and celebrate the background and variations of all their students, particularly their culturally and linguistically diverse students."

Home, School and Community Partnerships
Home, School and Community Partnerships

  • "Classroom materials reflect the characteristics, values, and practices of diverse cultural groups (e.g., books are available in a variety of languages...)."
  • "The uniqueness of each family is recognized and respected by all members of the school community (e.g., language...)."

Communication

  • "All program information is provided to families in lay terms, in the language most comfortable for each family..."
  • "Documentation of each child's progress is provided for families, and understanding of the documentation is guided by written and verbal communications in the language most comfortable for the family."

Learning Environment
Daily Routines

  • "Are implemented flexibly to meet individual needs and provide opportunities for the success of all children (e.g.,...dual language learners can demonstrate their abilities in their home language, as well as in English...). "
  • "Provide opportunities for conversation and self-expression in English and in the child's home language, if other languages are spoken at home."

The Documentation/Assessment Process: Introduction
"[T]he documentation/assessment process should consist of materials that are culturally and linguistically appropriate..."

Social/Emotional Development Domain - Standard 0.1: Children demonstrate self-confidence.
Preschool Teaching Practices - Effective preschool teachers:

  • "Adapt materials and activities to support English and non-English language speakers..."

Approaches to Learning - Standard 9.2: Children show creativity and imagination.
Preschool Teaching Practices - Effective preschool teachers:

  • Support multiple means of creative expression. The visual arts...offer many opportunities for all children, regardless of their abilities, personal experiences, language and cultural background, to communicate what they feel, think, know, and understand. It is important to give children who still have limited verbal fluency—dual language learners or some children with disabilities—other ways of expressing their ideas."

Standard 9.3: Children identify and solve problems.
Preschool Teaching Practices - Effective preschool teachers:

  • Stretch children's thinking and use interesting language and vocabulary in conversations, while keeping the needs of dual language learners in mind..."

Standard 9.4: Children apply what they have learned to new situations.
Preschool Teaching Practices - Effective preschool teachers:

  • Provide time for children to revisit and reflect on their experiences and learning through a variety of methods...and apply what they learn to new experiences. Multiple modes of expression can allow all children (dual language learners; children with disabilities) to participate in this process."

World Languages: Introduction
"With the growing number of young children in New Jersey who speak and understand different home languages, preschool teachers and classrooms must be equipped to support children's learning in more than one language. Being bilingual can be an asset for all children. Teachers can integrate words from languages other than English into the classroom through songs, daily routines, and storybooks. Labels written in languages other than English can be used to identify items within the classroom. Parents and community members who speak languages other than English can be valuable resources in helping children both understand and respect the linguistic diversity present in our culture, and they should be invited to share these languages with the children.

Special consideration must be given to preschool children who already know more than one language. Materials should be available that represent and support the native languages and cultures of the children and adults in the class. Teachers should understand that all languages are learned in context as children interact with and explore their world. In addition, teachers should plan opportunities to extend children's language throughout the day and across all content areas."

Standard 7.1: "Children know that people use different languages (including sign language) to communicate, and will express simple greetings, words, and phrases in a language other than their own."

New Jersey Department of Education: Preschool Program Implementation Guidelines [PDF, 233KB] (2010)

Supporting Dual Language Learners
"Support for continued development of the home language is critical in the preschool years as it impacts the child's basic language foundation as well as content learning. Research that examines ways to optimize the language development of young dual language learners shows that educational programs should focus on first language development as well as English language acquisition."

Professional Development: Teacher Professional Development
"Methods for enhancing language development in the home language, as well as English."

Program Evaluation:
"Supporting Dual Language Learners

  • Teachers use strategies to support dual language learners;
  • The focus is on helping children achieve English competency and maintain their first languages; and
  • The curriculum provides numerous language enrichment opportunities."

New Mexico

New Mexico Early Learning Guidelines: Birth through Kindergarten [PDF, 3MB] (2011)

Separated into Infant/Toddler and 3- and 4-year-old Guidelines (Kindergarten guidelines are not reviewed here).

Guiding Principle
"Valuing children's home language is vital to their development:

  • Families transmit values, beliefs and a sense of belonging to their children. Because they do so primarily through their language, support of the development of home language is strongly encouraged by all involved in relationships with the child and his or her family. Assessment of language must be done in the language of the home."

Infant/Toddler Early Learning Guidelines
"Domain description: Learning the language of one's family is a primary task for infants and toddlers. Early childhood educators communicate with children in their home language as much as possible, modeling language usage for infants and toddlers, eliciting language from them and building on their communication through meaningful conversations, descriptions of what they are doing, and open-ended questioning."

Domain: Beginning to Know About Ourselves and Others
Example of DLL in Domain Vignette

Domain: Beginning to Communicate
Domain Description:
"Learning the language of one's family is a primary task for infants and toddlers. Early childhood educators communicate with children in their home language as much as possible, modeling language usage for infants and toddlers. They elicit language from them and build on their communication through meaningful conversations, descriptions of what they are doing, and open-ended questioning."

"...The indicators in the early learning guidelines can be used to assess the mode of communication most familiar or appropriate for the child. We are calling this his "home language", which may be Spanish, English, an indigenous language, sign, etc. They can also be used to assess a child's second language, any language to which the child is exposed in addition to his home language...[M]any of our infants and toddlers are growing up as members of families and within households where more than one language is spoken. Some young children may live in communities that are working to revitalize heritage languages that are at risk of being lost. Some children may also be learning a second language while in our care. Research tells us that babies are well equipped to learn more than one language right from birth. Bilingual children generally reach communication milestones at about the same time as their monolingual peers. Early childhood educators should communicate with children in the child's home language as much as possible, modeling language usage...The child's home language is what is familiar and comforting to them as they are getting used to a new environment or feeling stressed by the separation from their familiar caregivers. Young children understand many more concepts than they are able to express...Research supports that children who develop a strong foundation in their home language will use that foundation to learn a second language (for example, English) more effectively."

At the bottom of each page in Beginning to Communicate guidelines chart:
"Note: The indicators refer to the mode of communication most familiar or appropriate for the child. We are calling this his "home language" which may be Spanish, English, an indigenous language, sign etc. The second language is any language to which the child is exposed in addition to his home language. Depending on the child/situation this may also be Spanish, English, an indigenous language, sign, etc."

Domain: Beginning to Build Concepts
Example of DLL in Domain Vignette.

Preschool & Kindergarten Early Learning Guidelines: Essential Indicators with Rubrics - Domain: Literacy
Domain Description:
"Their home language is their primary one. As teachers interact with children and families, respect and special attention is given to the home language so that each child can demonstrate his or her competence in listening and speaking to the fullest."

Keep in Mind
"Families transmit values, beliefs and a sense of belonging to their children. Because they do so primarily through their language, support of the development of home language is strongly encouraged by all involved in relationships with the child and his or her family. Assessment of language must be done in the language of the home."

Essential Indicators
Indicator 6.1 (Essential Indicator #4): "Converses effectively in his or her home language, English, or sign language for a variety of purposes relating to real experiences and different audiences."

Domain: Self, Family & Community
Domain Description:"Culture, heritage, home language, values and traditions all play very important roles in the child's growing sense of self."
Example of DLL in Domain Vignette.

New York

New York State Early Learning Guidelines [PDF, 6MB] (2012)

Guidelines: 0 – 5
Domain II: Social and Emotional Development

P. Emotional Expression
Sample Strategies - 36 to 60 months:

  • "Incorporate books on feelings reflective of the language and cultural background of child."

Domain V: Language, Communication and Literacy
Introduction

"Early childhood education plays an essential role in preparing young English language learners (ELL) for later success in school. The youngest children seem born with an aptitude to learn multiple languages simultaneously, and research shows that young native speakers learn English as a second language in rich classroom settings with relative ease, provided that the teacher creates opportunities and experiences to support this. Also during this time, a child's young peers are highly effective teachers, modeling language and providing a safe climate for new English speakers to experiment with their new language...especially during free-play opportunities. In the beginning, supportive and nurturing teachers learn a few important words and phrases in the child's native/home language to help create an environment that is safe and trusting...Children who have a rich and supportive language environment in the classroom are likely to build proficiency in the second language more easily and quickly."

  1. Dual Language Acquisition
    Includes indicators for infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, and sample strategies to use with each age group.
  2. Expressive Vocabulary
    Indicator
    18 to 36 months:
    1. "Demonstrates use of an expressive vocabulary of more than 100 words, in home language."
    Sample strategies
    18 to 36 months:
    • "Provide opportunities for child to distinguish between real and nonsense words in home language."

    36 to 60 months:

    • "Support ELL child (or any second language learner) in acquiring a second language by avoiding translating everything for child and by using props, gestures, role-plays, physical movements, and demonstrations."
  3. Grammar and Syntax
    Sample strategies
    18 to 36 months:
    • "Recognize that English language learners may mix words from different languages in the same sentence; repeat what child said using all the words in the same language."

    36 to 60 months:

    • "Set aside a regular time during daily routine to engage child in meaningful conversation (if child is bilingual, in both languages separately at different times of the day)."
  4. Comprehension
    Sample strategies
    18 to 36 months:
    • "Provide opportunities for ELL child to ask questions in his/her home language first as that might be more closely linked to the development of understanding."
  5. Conventions of Social Communication
    Indicator
    36 to 60 months:
    1. "Bilingual child adjusts his/her language and communication form according to person with whom he/she is speaking."

    Sample strategy
    36 to 60 months:

    • "Provide opportunities for interaction within child's own social conventions and also other languages and cultural groups."
  6. Reading: Awareness that Written Materials Can Be Used for a Variety of Purposes
    Sample strategy
    36 to 60 months:
    • "Provide opportunities for child to help put something together based upon printed directions (for bilingual children, in both languages)."
  7. Writing: Alphabet Knowledge
    Indicator
    36 to 60 months:
    1. "Shows awareness of two different writing systems (especially appropriate for ELL child)."

New York State Prekindergarten Foundation for the Common Core [PDF, 785KB]

Foundation: Prekindergarten
Introduction: Foundation for Common Core
"The primary purpose of prekindergarten standards is to ensure that all children, including children with disabilities, students with Limited English Proficiency (LEP), and English Language Learners (ELLs) have rich and varied early learning experiences that prepare them for success in school and lay the foundation for college and career readiness."

Intro: English Language Learners
"Early childhood education plays an essential role in preparing young English language learners (ELLs) for later success in school. It provides children with the opportunity to develop basic foundational skills in language and literacy before they enter kindergarten ready to learn...It is...essential to encourage continued first language development in our children by providing them with appropriate education settings such as a bilingual classroom or ESL program, which support language and literacy learning in English. Those children who have had rich first language experiences seem to learn a second language...more easily than children who have had limited experience with the language they have used in their homes since birth."

"The...Foundation for the Common Core acknowledges the central role of language in the achievement of benchmarks as laid out for each of the domains and highlights the needs of learners who are still developing proficiency in English. These standards use students' first languages and cultures as the foundation for developing academic language proficiency, and encourage the education of young ELLs] in a bilingual setting. The...Foundation for the Common Core envisions language proficiency that builds on language complexity, cognitive engagement, and context within the key areas of language development (speaking, listening, viewing, representing, reading, and writing)."

Guiding Principles

    "The Prekindergarten Learning Standards are intended for all children regardless of economic, linguistic, and cultural differences or physical, learning, and emotional challenges."

North Carolina

North Carolina Foundations for Early Learning and Development [PDF, 2MB] (2013)

Foundations: 0 – 5
Purpose of Foundations
"Foundations describes Goals for all children's development and learning, no matter what program they may be served in, what language they speak, what disabilities they may have, or what family circumstances they are growing up in."

Guiding Principles
"[C]hildren who are learning English in addition to another language at home will make progress on the same Developmental Indicators as English-speaking children, particularly if they are in an early education setting where adults use their home language as well as English. Foundations is designed to be used with all children."

Effective Use of Foundations with All Children
Children from Diverse Language and Cultural Backgrounds

"The Goals and Developmental Indicators from all five domains are applicable for Dual Language Learners, but teachers may need to supplement or provide different types of learning experiences that can best support Dual Language Learners, and to think carefully about how the children demonstrate what they are learning....Dual Language Learners will benefit greatly if teachers and caregivers continue to support their home language learning at the same time they are learning English...[T]eachers and caregivers who do not speak the same language as the family can learn key words or phrases to help guide the child using the child's home language during the day...

[T]eachers need to plan how they will introduce concepts and ideas in a way that Dual Language Learners can best understand them even if the instruction is in English. Ideally concepts can be introduced in the child's home language and in English so the child has a chance to learn the concept and to learn English...[T]eachers and caregivers should provide support for children to demonstrate their learning in a variety of ways...[C]hildren can demonstrate their capabilities on almost any of the Goals and Developmental Indicators in their home language or in English, and through other means such as gestures, pictures and/or using objects to show what they have learned...[T]he family can provide invaluable information about their child's experiences and the extent to which the child has heard/hears English being spoken. In addition, families can provide information about how the child learns best, they can assist the teacher in gaining a greater understanding of the child's home language, and they can reinforce what the child is learning in the program with learning experiences at home."

Approaches to Play and Learning (APL)
Strategies for Preschoolers

Attentiveness, Effort, and Persistence - 3. "Help children with limited language skills stay involved with activities by giving them words and other means to communicate if they are having difficulty expressing their ideas..."

Emotional and Social Development (ESD)
Goal ESD-2 Inset box:

"Home language and culture are an important part of children's developing self-concept and self-identity. Teachers and caregivers can help to support this process by creating an environment that reflects the children they serve and addresses children's languages and cultures in a respectful and authentic way."

Goal ESD-4 Inset box:
"Children whose home language is different from the language spoken in the classroom may need extra time and support to develop peer relationships..."

Strategies for Preschoolers
Developing a Sense of Self
- "If possible, use children's home language in daily conversations with them.
Developing a Sense of Self With Others - "Serve as broker between Dual Language Learners and children who speak English to facilitate their engagement in play with others."

Language Development and Communication (LDC)
Introduction
"Many families speak languages other than English at home. Children need to continue to learn and speak their family's language because learning their home language lays the foundation for learning English, plus they will learn other concepts more easily. Children whose families speak a language other than English will probably demonstrate progress on the Goals and Developmental Indicators...in their home language, so it's really important to encourage children and their families to continue to use their own language while they are learning English."

Goal LDC-4 Inset box:
"[C]hildren who are learning English as a second language may speak less often, so it's important for teachers and caregivers to pay close attention when quiet children do talk."

Goal LDC-6 Inset box:
"Dual Language Learners learn grammar rules first in their home language. It takes longer for them to get the hang of the rules of the second language they are learning, and they may use the grammatical constructions of their home language even when they use English words."

Goal LDC-7 Inset box:
"Dual Language Learners develop vocabulary first in their home language. As they begin to learn their second language, they will build their vocabulary the same way as their home language—learning words that relate to things and people they experience first, followed by words that are more abstract. They may mix words from their home language and words from their second language as their vocabulary grows."

Goal LDC-10 Inset box:
"Dual Language Learners may learn about how print works in more than one language. Teachers and caregivers should be aware of these differences when helping children learn book knowledge and print awareness skills."

Goal LDC-11 Inset box:
"Dual Language Learners will have more opportunities to hear and process sounds in their home language than their second language, so they often are more aware of and able to produce sounds from their home language."

Goal LDC-15 Inset box:
"For Dual Language Learners it is important that teachers ask children in which language they are writing, so children can become aware of the differences between writing in each language."

Goal LDC-15 Inset box:
"For Dual Language Learners it is important that teachers ask children in which language they are writing, so children can become aware of the differences between writing in each language."

Strategies for Infants and Toddlers
Learning to Communicate

  1. "Even if you don't fluently speak the child's home language, learn to say at least a few words."
  2. "Play audio recordings of family members' voices in their own language for infants and toddlers to hear [while they are learning English]."
  3. "Encourage children to try out new sounds and words, including words in different languages..."

Strategies for Preschoolers
Learning to Communicate

  1. "For Dual Language Learners, repeat common phrases frequently, slowly, and clearly."
  2. "Use visual cues such as props, demonstrations, and gestures to help children understand instructions, especially children who are just beginning to learn English...."
  3. "Encourage opportunities for Dual Language Learners to interact with peers."
  4. "Make the value of bilingualism explicit in the classroom. Reinforce children's use of another language."

Strategies for Infants and Toddlers
Foundations for Reading

  1. "Introduce a new book in the children's family language first before reading it in English."

Strategies for Preschoolers
Foundations for Reading

  1. "Ensure that Dual Language Learners can participate in reading aloud even if they do not have the English proficiency to do so."

Strategies for Preschoolers
Foundations for Writing

  1. "Ask children if they have written in English or in another language to help them begin to understand that writing in one language is different from writing in another language."

Cognitive Development (CD)
Introduction
"Dual Language Learners may learn new concepts and demonstrate what they know best in their home language."

Scientific Exploration and Knowledge
Goal CD-14 Inset box
"Dual Language Learners will also benefit from opportunities to express their observation in their home language or in English."

Strategies for Infants and Toddlers
Social Connections

  1. "Learn to say a few important words in the home language of children whose families speak a different language. (Consult with parents about which phrases are most important.)"

Supporting Dual Language Learners (DLL)
Introduction
"…While this brief section cannot provide all the information that a teacher or caregiver might need, it provides a starting point by describing Dual Language Learners, providing information on how to work with Dual Language children and families, and presenting ideas for how to use the Foundations document when working with Dual Language children."

North Carolina Guide for the Early Years, Second Edition [PDF, 9MB]

Preschool and Kindergarten
Chapter 2: Informed Teacher Practices
"Since each child is unique and learns in unique ways, teaching practices must be designed to respond to the wide range of characteristics and abilities found among children in any classroom, including those learning English..."

Chapter 3: Creating a Learning Environment for ALL Children (Introduction)
Introduction
"More and more, [children] may be learning English as a second language. This chapter addresses how...teachers can plan and organize programs and their classrooms to meet the diverse needs of all the children who come to them."

Children who bring diversity in language and culture.
"Teachers in classrooms that include children from diverse cultures and with different home languages should be guided by these six principles:

  • Children from families with diverse cultural and language backgrounds are valuable assets to preschool and kindergarten programs.
  • Children's learning is affected by their language and cultural background.
  • Preschool and kindergarten classrooms should strive to promote understanding and respect for different cultures and languages.
  • Children whose home language is not English learn best when early educators encourage them to continue to speak and read their home language while learning English.
  • Families who speak a language other than English should be encouraged to continue to speak and read to their child in their home language, even while the child is learning English.
  • Educators should expect wide variation in how children make progress on learning English and on the skills and characteristics described in Foundations and the Kindergarten Standard Course of Study."

Chapter 7: Preparing Children for School addresses sensitivity to culture/language diversity.
Respecting Diversity
"More and more, [children] may be learning English as a second language. This chapter addresses how...teachers can plan and organize programs and their classrooms to meet the diverse needs of all the children who come to them."

  • "The school...interacts with children and their families in ways that are compatible with individual needs and family backgrounds."

Chapter 8: Making Informed Decisions about Curriculum
Indicators of an Effective Curriculum
"The curriculum supports children whose home language is not English in building a solid base for later learning."

Chapter 9: Assessing Children's Progress Appropriately
Assessing Children Learning English
"The most important thing to remember about assessing children learning English is that all the standards that apply to good assessment for all children apply to children learning English."

Chapter 13: Language Development and Early Literacy

  1. Support for second-language learners
    "As children learn English, they go through predictable stages, much like a baby learning to talk. Some who are learning multiple languages exhibit a "silent period" in one or more of these languages. Teachers should expect wide variations in how children make progress on learning English and on the skills and characteristics described in the expectations/objectives."

Chapter 14: Cognitive Development
Mathematics: Stage 4 (Block Play)
"[Encourage] children to add signs, labels, and names to their structures, incorporating writing in a meaningful way. Encourage them to use both English and their home language, if it is different."

North Dakota

Birth to 3 Early Learning Guidelines [PDF, 881KB]

Guidelines: 0-3
Based, in part, on Minnesota's Early Childhood Indicators of Progress.

Guiding Principle 1
"Infants and toddlers develop in the context of their families, cultures and communities."

Language Development and Communication: Listening and Understanding (Some Caregiver Strategies)
"Recognize and support baby's learning of home languages and culture."

Communicating and Speaking (Examples of Behavior)

  • Young Infant: "Makes cooing sounds and other sounds of home languages."
  • Older Infant: "Imitates sounds or familiar words of home language. Has a vocabulary of 10-20 words in home language or uses 10-20 signs consistently."
  • Toddler: "Uses home language with a vocabulary of 50 or more words or signs and sometimes uses two-or three-word sentences."

North Dakota Early Learning Guidelines Ages 3 Through 5 [PDF, 652KB]

Guidelines: 3-5
Guiding Principle 17. (from NAEYC)
"Children's homes, communities, and family lives will be respected in the early care and education setting. The home language is used as the basis for learning a second language. A child's learning is complex and is influenced by multiple cultural and contextual factors."

Overview of Early Learning Guidelines: Implementing (Assessment)
"Assess English language learners in both English and their primary language."

Guideline 3. Close, Caring Relationships
"The Adult/Caregiver Will:

  • Consistently and regularly encourage development in communication, language, and literacy while being sensitive to the cultural integrity of language and spoken communication."

Guideline 4. Connections with Families and Community
Both "The Program" and "The Adult/Caregiver" will
"actively support and value children's home language by encouraging children to use it at home and across early learning settings." Caregiver will… "Use vocabulary and phrases in children's home language when introducing new ideas or concepts."

Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands

NA

Ohio

Early Learning and Development Standards in All Essential Domains of School Readiness (Birth – Age 5) (2012)

No mention of Dual Language Learners

Early Learning and Development Standards (Birth to age 5): Implementation Guides (2013)

Language and Literacy Development
Domain: Language and Literacy Development
Listening and Speaking:
Receptive Language and Comprehension

Young Toddlers - The teacher may:

  • "Provide repetition and reinforcement of emerging vocabulary, especially for English language learners, in multiple ways and varied contexts."

Older Toddlers - The teacher may:

  • "Pair English language learners at different levels of English competence to encourage conversations. Recognize the stages of second-language acquisition and recognize some children may be in the "listening and observing" stage and will respond accordingly."
  • "Provide "wait time" for children, especially English language learners, to process language and responses."

Pre-Kindergarten - The teacher may:

  • "Incorporate key words from the books into other activities for repetition and meaningful exposure/learning for English language learners."
  • "Check for understanding by allowing English language learners to respond with means appropriate to their language learning levels..."

Expressive Language
Young Toddlers - The teacher may:

  • "For English language learners, point to pictures to support correct responses. Invite them to point, gesture or use their home languages to demonstrate their understanding."

Older Toddlers - The teacher may:

  • "Encourage English language learners to repeat your modeled language."
  • "Expand on children's responses, including English language learners, to model language, vocabulary, sentence structure, adjective positions, etc..."
  • "Model applicable language for English language learners..."

Pre-Kindergarten - The teacher may:

  • "Invite families of English language learners to bring pictures or objects from home to help children communicate better with peers..."
  • "Support English language learners' participation by providing short, focused descriptions."

Social Communication
Older Toddlers - The teacher may:

  • "Accept gestures, approximations, etc., expanding and modeling on English language learners oral responses."

Pre-Kindergarten - The teacher may:

  • "Accompany conversation with props, objects, visuals, actions, etc., as appropriate to support comprehension and participation for English language learners."

Reading Comprehension
Young Toddlers - The teacher may:

  • "Support English language learners by providing names of pictures/vocabulary, etc., and encourage attempts in either English or their home languages. Model English equivalent without appearing to correct the home language."

Pre-Kindergarten - The teacher may:

  • "Provide support for English language learners by posing questions and providing responses....="
  • "Invite families of English language learners, staff or members of the community to visit and read stories..."
  • "Explicitly pre-teach English language learners key story vocabulary and model typical questions and response forms..."
  • "Group English language learners heterogeneously with stronger language English language learners and strong native English speakers over the typical five-day dialogic reading..."

Print ConceptsPre-Kindergarten - The teacher may:

  • "Be aware that English language learners who have sound/letter correspondence in their native/home language may use invented spelling reflecting that knowledge; allow them to use it since they may only have vocabulary in their language to match what they've drawn or want to write. English equivalents can be introduced; value their languages and add to it with English."

Additional examples of ELL strategies can be found in Implementation Guides for: Approaches Toward Learning, Cognitive Development and General Knowledge, and Physical Well-Being and Motor Development domains.

Early Language and Literacy Reflection Tool [webpage]

Reflection Tool
Creating Language Rich Opportunities and a Literacy Rich Environment
"Supports the Early Learning Program Guidelines: Section 2, Outcome 1, Goals 2 and 3." Adapted from ELLCO.

Oral Language within Curriculum and Standards - 8.
"Patterns of development (in both first and second languages) are considered when planning for oral language activities and instruction."

Oklahoma

Oklahoma Early Learning Guidelines for Infants, Toddlers, and Twos [PDF, 2MB]

Guidelines: Infants/Toddlers
Communication Skills and Early Literacy
"Special consideration should be given to those young children whose home language is not English. Assist the English Language Learner by building on what the young child may already know in his/her native language."

Language Standard 1 and 2 (0-8 months)
Teacher can: "Respond promptly by verbally acknowledging infant's attempt to communicate… (Use infant's home language when possible.)"

Standard 2 (16-36 months)
Teacher can: "Respectfully acknowledge unique home language the child uses."

Standard 4 (6-18 months)
Baby may: "Begin to follow simple directions and demonstrate understanding of home and/or English language."(16-36 months): Toddler might: "Demonstrate an understanding of language spoken at home." Teacher can: "Have families provide descriptions in their home language, special words related to routine, daily activity, expressions, etc." And "Use home language that the child understands. Build on the child's current level of communication."

Oklahoma Early Learning Guidelines for Children Ages Three through Five [PDF, 4MB] (2010)

Guidelines: 3-5
Overview
"Early childhood programs should: Provide an environment that is sensitive to cultural, language, physical, and learning differences among all children served."

Inclusion
Consider when planning activities… "Conveying respect for English Language Learners (ELL) and their home language, i.e., speaking clearly, using simple words…, paraphrasing and modeling correct use of English instead of correcting children's language and allowing children to be silent as they are in the process of learning English."

Concept Area: Language Arts
"For English Language Learners (ELL)… Teachers need to assist… by building upon what children may already know in their native language. Emphasis should be placed on commonalities that exist between English and the native language. Extra time should be allowed for ELL to process information and formulate thoughts. It is important to use concrete objects and pictures to teach ELL children."

Oral Language: Standard 1: Indicator A
Strategies include: "books in children's primary language."Standard 2: Indicator C.: "For ELL children, makes progress in communicating and using English while maintaining home language."

Oregon

Oregon Early Childhood Foundations [PDF, 191KB]
(Page has links to Introduction and Birth to Three and Three to Five Foundations)

Introduction
"The ECF are intended to be inclusive of all children – English Language Learners, children with special health care needs, children with disabilities, and children who are typically developing – recognizing that children may develop on the continuum at different times and in different ways."

Language and Literacy Development (LL) – ages 3-5
Indicators

Listening and Understanding (LU)
The Child:
LL.35.LU.01: "Understands and uses home language and English during play and/or when conversing with other children or adults."

Oregon Early Childhood Foundations – Birth to 3 (2007)

Language and Literacy Development: Birth to Three
Early Childhood Foundation:

Listening and Understanding - "Children gain information and understanding by observing, listening and responding to home language and English..."

Indicators: Observable Behaviors

  • The Adult: "Encourages parents to develop and maintain their first language in the home."

Speaking and Communicating
"Children use non-verbal communication and language in home language to express needs, wants and ideas."

Social Emotional Development: Knowledge of Family, Community and Diversity
Early Childhood Foundation:

Knowledge of Families, Community and Diversity
Indicators: Observable Behaviors

  • The Child: "Speaks in home language with family members and uses main language spoken in child care with those who do not speak home language."

Social Science: Birth to Three
Early Childhood Foundation:

Civics and Government Diversity
Indicators: Observable Behaviors

  • The Child: "Speaks in home language with family members."

Republic of Palau

NA

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania Learning Standards for Early Childhood: Infants - Toddlers [PDF, 3MB] (2014)

Standards Aligned System (SAS)

  1. Instruction including Interventions
    STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Math)
    Interventions

    English Language Learners/Dual Language Learners
    "Children develop language much the same way they acquire other skills. Children learn native and second languages using an individual style and rate. Differences among English Language Learners/ Dual Language Learners such as mixing languages or a silent period are natural. Each child's progress in learning English needs to be respected and viewed as acceptable and part of the ongoing process of learning any new skill. Children can demonstrate proficiency in most of the standards using their native language. Use of home language in the classroom environment, and in simple phrases, validates a child's place in the classroom, encouraging the child to see him/herself as a learner. Working alongside English speaking adults and peers in authentic learning experiences which respect home language is an effective means of learning English. Similar to all young children, English Language Learners/ Dual Language Learners benefit from use of visuals, props, and realia (objects from real life used in classroom instruction to improve children's understanding of other cultures and real life situations). The skills needed for young English Language Learners/Dual Language Learners to become proficient in English are fully embedded in the Pennsylvania Learning Standards for Early Childhood."
  2. Materials and Resources
    "School environments should be linked to a child's home environment, incorporating cultural and ethnic materials and children's home language..."

Early Childhood Connections

  1. Connections to Families
    "Communications with families should be made in the home language. Professionals in high quality, early education programs know and understand their own attitudes and biases and are culturally sensitive and supportive of diversity."

Guiding Principles

  1. "Early childhood care and education programs must address the individual needs of all infants and toddlers (e.g. with special needs, from diverse cultural backgrounds...etc.) and respect their families."

Approaches to Learning Through Play
Standard AL4 Learning Through Experience
AL4.I.A
Supportive Practices: The adult will:

  • "Use or learn words from child's home language to incorporate into daily interactions."

Language and Literacy Development
Introduction: Diversity and Culture
"Providers have a unique opportunity to create welcoming environments that emphasize respect for diversity and support families' cultural and linguistic differences. Teachers must help assure the preservation of home language while supporting the acquisition of Standard English."

Standard Statement: 1.5 Speaking and Listening
D/E. Presentation of Knowledge: Broad Standard Statement: Infants and toddlers will develop expressive language skills.
Concepts and Competencies: The learner will:

  • "Babble using strings of consonant sounds and sounds and rhythms of native language"

Supportive Practices: The adult will:

  • "Communicate to child using native language or signs"

G. Conventions of Standard English: Broad Standard Statement: Infants and Toddlers demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English when speaking.
Supportive Practices: The adult will:

  • "State phrases in both home language and Standard English, as appropriate."

Mathematical Thinking and Expression
Standard 2.1: Numbers and Operations
2.1 YT.A.1
Supportive Practices: The adult will:

  • "Count using child's home language."

Creative Thinking and Expression
Standard 9.1.M Production and Performance: Music and Movement
9.1.M.I.B
Supportive Practices: The adult will:

  • "Intentionally provide a variety of music types, including a wide range of culturally diverse music."

Standard 9.1.V: Production and Performance: Visual Arts
9.1.V.YT.A.
Supportive Practices: The adult will:

  • "Display a variety of works of art, including those which are culturally diverse."

Social and Emotional Development
Standard 16.2: Establishing and Maintaining Relationships
16.2.I.B
Supportive Practices: The adult will:

  • "Use or learn words from child's home language to incorporate into daily interactions."
  • "Use words from child's home language and incorporate into daily interactions."

Partnerships for Learning: Families, Learning Environments and Communities
Standard PL2: Families experience relationships with early care and education programs/professionals that are affirming, reciprocal and build upon their strengths.

Approaches to relationship building
Families Will Experience:

  • "Families provide and receive communication in their preferred method."

Practices to honor a family's unique culture
Supportive Practices of Programs/Professional

  • Ensure that family communications are done in culturally sensitive ways that accommodates family literacy levels, and language needs."

Standard PL3: Families have the support and information they need to encourage their child's learning and development.

Using family input and strengths to enhance and support children's development
Supportive Practices of Programs/Professional

  • "Include families in the screening, authentic assessment and referral processes of the program. Assure that these processes are culturally sensitive and delivered in the language requested by the family. Include multiple sources of evidence to understand children's growth and development."

Standard PL7: Families are supported in times of transition.
Supportive Practices of Programs/Professionals
Strand: Family to School (or program)
"Identify home culture, language, and routines, and how they might enhance or impact a child's learning and participation in the program."

Pennsylvania Learning Standards for Early Childhood: Pre-Kindergarten [PDF, 2MB] (2014)

Standards Aligned System (SAS)

  1. Instruction including Interventions
    STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Math)
    Interventions

    English Language Learners/Dual Language Learners
    "Children develop language much the same way they acquire other skills. Children learn native and second languages using an individual style and rate. Differences among English Language Learners/ Dual Language Learners such as mixing languages or a silent period are natural. Each child's progress in learning English needs to be respected and viewed as acceptable and part of the ongoing process of learning any new skill. Children can demonstrate proficiency in most of the standards using their native language. Use of home language in the classroom environment, and in simple phrases, validates a child's place in the classroom, encouraging the child to see him/herself as a learner. Working alongside English speaking adults and peers in authentic learning experiences which respect home language is an effective means of learning English. Similar to all young children, English Language Learners/ Dual Language Learners benefit from use of visuals, props, and realia (objects from real life used in classroom instruction to improve children's understanding of other cultures and real life situations). The skills needed for young English Language Learners/Dual Language Learners to become proficient in English are fully embedded in the Pennsylvania Learning Standards for Early Childhood."
  2. Materials and Resources
    "School environments should be linked to a child's home environment, incorporating cultural and ethnic materials and children's home language..."

Early Childhood Connections

  1. Connections to Families
    "Communications with families should be made in the home language. Professionals in high quality, early education programs know and understand their own attitudes and biases and are culturally sensitive and supportive of diversity."

Guiding Principles

  1. "Early childhood care and education programs must address the individual needs of a diverse population of children, e.g. children with special needs, children from diverse cultural backgrounds, children from all socio-economic groups."

Language and Literacy Development
Introduction: Diversity and Culture
"Today's early childhood programs include increasingly diverse groups of children, families and teachers who represent many cultures, values and lifestyles. Providers have a unique opportunity to create welcoming environments that emphasize respect for diversity and support families' cultural and linguistic differences. Teachers must help assure the preservation of home language while supporting the acquisition of Standard English."

Standard Statement: 1.5 Speaking and Listening
G. Conventions of Standard English: Broad Standard Statement: Infants and Toddlers demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English when speaking.
Supportive Practices: The adult will:

  • "State phrases in both home language and Standard English, as appropriate."

Partnerships for Learning: Families, Learning Environments and Communities
Standard PL2: Families experience relationships with early care and education programs/professionals that are affirming, reciprocal and build upon their strengths.
Approaches to relationship building
Supportive Practices of Programs/Professionals

  • "Use parents preferred methods for communication."

Families Will Experience:

  • "Families provide and receive communication in their preferred method."

Practices to honor a family's unique culture
Supportive Practices of Programs/Professional

  • Ensure that family communications are done in culturally sensitive ways that accommodates family literacy levels, and language needs."

Standard PL3: Families have the support and information they need to encourage their child's learning and development
Using family input and strengths to enhance and support children's development
Supportive Practices of Programs/Professional

  • "Include families in the screening, authentic assessment and referral processes of the program. Assure that these processes are culturally sensitive and delivered in the language requested by the family..."

Standard PL7: Families are supported in times of transition.
Supportive Practices of Programs/Professionals
Strand: Family to School (or program)

Puerto Rico

NA

Rhode Island

RI Early Learning & Development Standards [PDF, 4MB] (2013)

Desarrollo y Aprendizaje Temprano Normas-RI [PDF, 2MB] (2013)

Standards: 0 - 5
Guiding Principles

  • "Child development theory will be foundation for teaching -- recognizing that learning is sequential, dependent upon experience, and based on knowledge of the whole child, including the child's culture and individual characteristics."
  • "The Standards are appropriate for all children, birth to 60-months, including children who are dual language learners and children with disabilities."

Essential Practices

  • Supporting children who are dual language learners:
    "While confirming the importance of supporting DLLs] to learn English, The Standards also clearly recognizes these children's home language as a source of tremendous strength, and its guidelines and indicators promote the continued development and growth of every child's home language as the child learns English...[T]he stronger the foundation in the home language, the better able children are to learn to understand and speak English—and to learn across all domains. [P]rograms need to ensure the continued development of children's home language, while promoting their acquisition of English. [C]hildren who are dual language learners should have the opportunity to interact and demonstrate their abilities, skills, and knowledge in any language—English and their home language."
  • "[D]evelopmentally appropriate learning experiences should demonstrate knowledge of and respect for the language skills and culture of learners[.]"

Language Development
Introduction
"[T]his domain also addresses the language development of dual language learners. Unlike most of the other progressions in this document, however, specific age thresholds do not define the indicators for English language development (or for development in any other language). Children who become dual language learners are exposed to their second language for the first time at different ages. As a result, one child may start the process of developing second-lan­guage skills at birth and another child may start at four, making the age thresholds inappropriate. So instead of using age, The Standards use research-based stages to outline a child's progress in English language develop­ment. It is important to note that there is no set time for how long it will take a given child to progress through these stages. Progress depends upon the unique characteristics of the child, his or her exposure to English in the home and other environments, the child's motivation to learn English, and other factors."

Language Development of Dual Language Learners
Learning Goal 4.a: "Young children attend to, understand, and respond to increasingly complex language as well as a range of topics and types of texts (including digital texts) in English. Young children become increasingly proficient in expressing their thoughts and ideas in English."
"In Mid-stage English language development, children:

  • "Make progress in their home language"

Learning Goal 4.b.
"In Mid-stage English language development, children:

  • Codeswitch (insert a home language word into an English sentence to get the point across when they don't know the word in English)
  • Converse with others in English using two or three words at a time but switch back and forth between English and their home language
  • Use some English grammatical markers...and apply at times the rules of grammar of the home language to English"

Literacy
Introduction

"[T]his domain also addresses the literacy development of dual language learners. However, specific age thresholds do not define the indicators for literacy development in English, unlike most of the other developmental progressions. Children who become dual language learners are exposed to English (in this country) for the first time at different ages. As a result, one child may start the process of developing English literacy skills very early in life and another child not until age four, making the age thresholds inappropriate. So instead of using age, The Standards use research-based stages to outline a child's progress in literacy development. It is important to note that there is no set time for how long it will take a given child to progress through these stages. Progress depends upon the unique characteristics of the child, his or her exposure to English in the home and other environments, the child's motivation to learn English, and other factors."

Literacy Development for Dual Language Learners
Learning Goal 5.a: "Children become increasingly engaged in literacy experiences in English."
"In Early-stage English language development, children:

  • Attend to an adult reading a short storybook written in the home language or to a storybook written in English if the English story has been read in the home language first and especially if the book contains cues (pictures).
  • "Read" familiar books (written in the home language or in English) when encouraged by others and use the home language to talk about the books.
  • Begin to identify and relate to a story from their own life experiences in their home language. Retell a story in their home language when read or told a story in the home language."

"In Mid-stage English language development, children:

  • Choose to read familiar books written in the home language or in English with increasing independence and to talk about the books in either their home language or English
  • Retell a story using the home language and some English when read or told the story in English"

South Carolina

South Carolina's Infant and Toddler Guidelines [PDF, 4MB]

Guidelines: Infants/Toddlers
Criteria for Guidelines Selection

  • "Learning expectations, indicators, and examples are written to describe a variety of goals and ways of achieving them that are inclusive of South Carolina's diverse cultural, ethnic, and linguistic populations."
  • "Guidelines describe the importance of individualization of care for infants and toddlers by, for example, stressing the importance of their home language and primary caregiving."

Guidelines themselves do not refer to dual language or English language learners.

Language and Communication Development
In introductory paragraphs: "Many children in infant and toddler care programs live in families with a home language different from English. Infants and toddlers need to learn their home language, because it is an important part of their identity development, their self-concept, their relationships at home and their ability to develop concepts and thinking skills. When caring for an infant or toddler with a home language different from English, adults should support children in using and learning their home language, as the children begin to learn English."

Appendix A: Ohio's Guiding Principles (used by writing team)
"The guideline must be sensitive to both cultural and linguistic differences. To ensure that each guideline was sensitive to both cultural and linguistic differences, each guideline was thoroughly reviewed to consider if the way a behavior might be expressed would be different depending on a child's cultural and/or linguistic background."

Good Start Grow Smart: South Carolina Early Learning Standards for 3, 4, & 5 Year-Old Children [PDF, 9MB]

Standards: 3-5
Guiding Principles
"Every child is unique and is accepted for his/her differences in development, culture, home environment, and learning style."

Social and Emotional Development: Introduction
"Teachers must show respect for the child's family and culture…"

Language and Literacy: Introduction
First paragraph references "home language and literacy experiences" as an influence on child's development, but no references to addressing dual language learners within the standards.

South Dakota

South Dakota Early Learning Guidelines [PDF, 4MB]
Also available in Spanish

Guidelines
Introduction
"The document has been written to provide support for professionals working with children from a variety of linguistic backgrounds. This would include children who are learning English as a new language, children raised in bilingual environments, and children who speak English and are learning their native language. Benchmarks and suggestions are written to recognize the fact that the child's first language serves as the foundation for acquisition of other languages."

Guiding Principle 6.
"Children's development reflects their cultural, linguistic, individual, family, and community diversity. Early childhood environments honor, respect and support the child's culture, language, family and community throughout the curriculum."

Organization of Document
"The Language and Literacy section includes benchmarks and suggestions for bilingual learners. This would include children who are learning English as a new language, children raised in bilingual environments, and children who speak English and are learning their native language. Rather than ‘English language learners,' the term ‘bilingual learners' has been used throughout this document to refer to these children to be more inclusive of all children in South Dakota."

Language and Literacy: Learning New Languages
"As we help children learn English, it is important that we support their home language and let children and families know we respect their home language. Children's competence in their first language supports the learning of a new language."

Language and Literacy: Additional Strategies for… Bilingual Learners
One page includes 12 strategies such as, "Learn a few words in the child's home language, and if possible, have a staff person available who can speak the language of the child."

Helpful Terms
Defines "Bilingual learners."

Tennessee

Revised Tennessee Early Childhood Learning Developmental Standards: Birth – 48 Months [PDF, 2MB] (2013)

Introduction
"When using these standards to plan activities, special consideration should be given to children whose home language is not English as well as to children with special needs."

Guiding Principles
"The Early Learning Standards are intended for all children regardless of economic, linguistic, and cultural differences and/or physical, learning, and emotional challenges."
"The…Standards provide:

  • A framework of developmental milestones for all children regardless of language, background, or diverse needs"

Approaches to Learning
"Children with special needs and children whose home language is not English may need additional support from an adult or from adaptive equipment in order to explore their environment."

Language and Early Literacy
"It is also important to note that children should learn their home language first. If you care for children who live in homes where English is not the primary language, you must work with the family to help provide their child with a rich foundation in their first language."

Math
"Special consideration should be given to children with special needs as well as children whose home language is not English when planning math related activities in the classroom."

Science"
Children whose home language is not English or children who have special needs may need additional support from an adult or from adaptive equipment in order to participate in science related activities."

Revised Tennessee Early Learning Developmental Standards for Four-Year-Olds [PDF, XMB] (2012)

Guiding Principles
"The Early Learning Standards are intended for all children regardless of economic, linguistic, and cultural differences and/or physical, learning, and emotional challenges."
"The…Standards provide:

  • A framework of developmental milestones for all children regardless of language, background, or diverse needs."

Revised TN ELDS Four-Year-Old Developmental Standards
Speaking & Listening
Presentation of Knowledge & Ideas
SL.PK.6a. "English Learner students use home language as well as English language through prompting and support."

Texas

Revised Texas PreKindergarten Guidelines [PDF, 1MB] (2008)

Introduction
i. Welcome to the Texas Prekindergarten Guidelines
"The guidelines can and should be used to support learning in a broad range of skills for children who are English language learners (ELL), including those children receiving instruction in their home language. A discussion of how this can be done successfully and instructional strategies to consider are included…"

"[T]he state's policy is to ensure the mastery of English by all students, specifically in situations in which Bilingual instruction is necessary to ensure students' reasonable proficiency in the English language and ability to achieve academic success. Texas Administrative Code...further emphasizes the goal of Bilingual education programs to enable limited English proficient students to become competent in the [understanding], speaking, reading, and [writing] of the English language by developing literacy and academic skills in the primary language and English...Children who speak a language other than English at home come to school with varying degrees of bilingualism and at least some level of proficiency in two different languages. The student's home language should serve as the foundation for second language acquisition, as cognitive skills transfer from one language to another. Children who are ELL should receive instruction in a manner they can understand and that is commensurate with their proficiency level in English...To use these guidelines to the best advantage and to extend the learning of skills and concepts, teachers must build on children's existing competencies."

Utilizing...the Guidelines
iii. How Texas Prekindergarten Guidelines Support Instruction for English Language Learners (ELL)

Four pages of information. Cites Texas Administrative Code requirements regarding Bilingual and English as Second Language and explains how English language acquisition applies to preschool-age. Includes instructional recommendations.
How to use the Texas Prekindergarten Guidelines
"Embedded within the guidelines are instructional techniques and child behaviors that are specific to ELL children."

vi. Monitoring Children's Learning and Development
"Whenever possible, skill levels of children who speak a language other than English should be assessed in both their home language and English. Measurement of home language skill level is essential when children are enrolled in Bilingual instructional programs."

II. Language and Communication Domain
In introductory paragraph: "For children whose first language is other than English, the native language serves as the foundation for communication among family and community members, and building concepts and understanding of the world around them. This proficiency also assists in English language acquisition. Many children who are English language learners (ELL) enter our schools with a remarkable knowledge of their native language, a ‘linguistic knowing' that they utilize instinctively in their daily communications. The process of transfer with literacy‐based ESL and oral language beginning in prekindergarten, requires that we take what students already know and understand about literacy in their home language and ensure that this knowledge is used to help them gain literacy skills in a second language."

An icon in various areas indicates further guidance for working with ELLs in other parts of this domain.

Little Texans Big Futures: The Texas Infant, Toddler, and Three-Year-Old Early Learning Guidelines [PDF, 4MB] (2008)

Guiding Principles
"The Guidelines must:

  • Be sensitive to family culture and linguistic differences"

Culturally Appropriate Practices in Early Childhood Settings
"[R]ecognize that language plays a critical role in children's connection to their culture and community. Best practice...includes speaking with young children in their home language. In this way, providers support young children's connection to their culture and their language development...We know from research that being bilingual or multilingual is an advantage for children developmentally, so it is appropriate for early care and education providers to make every effort to use children's home language in the classroom. Once the children are skilled and developed in their home language, they transfer many of those skills to a second language...[W]orking with young children in their home language does not hurt their ability to learn English. Of course, given the cultural diversity of Texas, some providers will not have the resources to ensure that all children in their care are spoken to in their home language, but when possible, providers should use the child's home language."

Language and Communication Development
"Even very young infants are learning a great deal about their home language or other languages in their environment and caregivers can do many things to help support language development."

Communication and Speaking: Indicators
8-18 months
"Older infants might

  • Use approximately 50-100 words in home language or in English by 18 months"

8-18 months
"Toddlers might

  • Use approximately 400 words in home language or in English by 30 months
  • Use approximately 1000 words in home language or in English by 36 months"

36-48 months
"Three-year-olds might

  • Use approximately 4000+ words in home language or in English by 48 months

Emergent Literacy
8-18 months
"Older infants might

  • Participate in activities or songs that require listening (listens to songs/rhymes in English and home language)
  • Enjoy being read to and exploring books and reading materials on their own (in English and in home language)"

36-48 months
"Three-year-olds might

  • Enjoy doing "pretend readings" of familiar books and making up a story to match drawings (in English and in home language)
  • Attempt to reproduce letters (or characters depending on home language) by copying"

Utah

Utah's Early Childhood Core Standards with Teaching Strategies and Activities (2013)

Para La Primera Infancia Estandares Centrales de Utah Con Estrategias y Actividades de Ensenanza

Introduction
Purpose
"The Standards are designed to be inclusive of all children and should be implemented by providing experiences that build upon the child's current strengths, knowledge, and skills. Related concepts may be added as appropriate in order to assure that every child reaches his/her potential. Instructional adaptations may be needed to meet children's individual needs."

WIDA CAN Do Descriptors: Grade Level Cluster Pre-K
"For the given level of English language proficiency and with visual, graphic, or interactive support through Level 4, English language learners can process or produce the language needed to:"

The WIDA table for Reading and Writing lays out Pre-K performance definitions for proficiency levels (entering, beginning, developing, expanding, bridging).

"The Performance Definitions use three criteria (1. linguistic complexity; 2. vocabulary usage; and 3. language control) to describe the increasing quality and quantity of students' language processing and use across the levels of language proficiency."

English Language Arts
Receptive and Expressive Language (Listening and Speaking)
"Adults support learning when they:

  • Create a language-rich environment, including eye-level alphabet charts, reading centers, listening centers, writing centers, dramatic play centers, and labels with primary language (L1) modifications as necessary."

"Adults support English Language Learners (ELLs) when they:

  • Recognize that a "silent period,"...is typical for children who are initially learning English.
  • Limit length of speech to essential words and concepts for children who are just beginning ELLs.
  • Speak at a moderate rate.
  • Offer interpretations for ELL children when possible.
  • Provide visual aids that support language.
  • Accompany oral language with gestures and intonation that assist comprehension.
  • Rephrase in English what children have said in their home language, if possible.
  • Encourage children to connect their home language with newly learned words.
  • Provide reading and listening materials in the children's first language, if possible.
  • Develop peer support within the group for assisting ELL children when necessary."

Vermont

Vermont Early Learning Standards [PDF, 639KB] (2003)

Standards
Companion guide to the Vermont Framework of Standards and Learning Opportunities; contains cross references to Vermont Framework and Head Start Child Outcomes Framework.

Introduction: Use of… Standards
"The standards are written to include…English language learners… It is the educator's responsibility to appropriately adapt these standards to accommodate all children."

Language, Literacy, and Communication
In introductory paragraphs: "Educators must respect and incorporate the rich diversity of families' languages and dialects into the educational environment as children make progress in speaking and understanding English."

Listening and Understanding and Speaking and Communicating Examples
"Progress in listening and understanding English while maintaining home language."

Vermont's Framework of Standards and Learning Opportunities [PDF, 656KB] (preK-12)

Framework: Prekindergarten – 12
No reference to DLL.

Learning Opportunities: Connections (D.3.h.)
"Recognition and support of diverse languages and cultures (e.g., interpreters at parent-teacher conferences and open houses)."

Virginia

Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning-Comprehensive Standards for 4-year-olds [PDF, 361KB] (2013)

Overview
"Observant and responsive teachers adapt the curriculum, learning environment, and materials and equipment to meet the needs of children with disabilities and developmental delays, with special health care needs, children who are homeless, children who are English Language Learners, and children who are gifted. . . . Some examples of [instructional] activities are: using real-life, hands-on activities, repetition, visual representation, and experiential activities. All of these activities provide a context for meaningful learning necessary for all children, but especially critical for English Language Learners and children with special needs."

U.S. Virgin Islands

United States Virgin Islands Early Learning Guidelines (April 2010) [PDF, XMB]

Guiding Principles
Children are members of cultural groups that share developmental patterns.
"The...Guidelines acknowledge that children's development and learning opportunities reflect the cultural and linguistic diversity of children, families and environments. All children expect that their home, community and family lives will be respected in the early care and education setting. Children's home language must be respected as the basis for learning a second language. The Guidelines recognize that a child's learning is complex and is influenced by cultural and contextual factors."

Potential Uses
For Teachers and Caregivers
"To guide planning for curriculum content and teaching strategies:
Each child's culture and language, developmental levels, learning style, and personal interests must be taken into account as learning experiences are implemented..."
"Toprovide direction for authentic assessment of young children:
Authentic assessment methods for children should meet these criteria:

  • Are fair to all cultures, language groups, and developmental levels."

Domain 2: Social, Emotional and Values Development
Strategies TEACHERS AND CAREGIVERS Can Use to Facilitate Children's RELATIONSHIPS WITH PEERS:

  • "Support English language learners by providing key words in English."

Domain 4: Cognitive: Language and Literacy
Strategies FAMILY MEMBERS Can Use to Facilitate Children's SPEAKING:

  • "Talk with your child in your home language and/or academic English."

Strategies TEACHERS AND CAREGIVERS Can Use to Facilitate Children's SPEAKING:

  • "Value children's home language and attempts to communicate, while modeling academic English."
  • "When possible, communicate with non‐English speakers using their home language."
  • "Support English language acquisition by using props, gestures, and role plays. Identify and explain patterns in errors of spoken English to help children acquire language competency without correcting but by guiding children by example."
  • Sing songs that incorporate words from two languages."

Early Childhood Indicators of Progress
"Children show progress in speaking when they:

  • Communicate information using home language and/or academic English
  • Speak clearly enough to be understood in home language and/or academic English"

Strategies TEACHERS AND CAREGIVERS can use to facilitate children's EMERGENT READING—BOOK AND STORY KNOWLEDGE:

  • "Make books available that represent children's life experiences, cultural backgrounds, and home languages."

Strategies TEACHERS AND CAREGIVERS can use to facilitate children's EMERGENT READING—PRINT AWARENESS:

  • "Label objects and areas of the classroom using pictures, English, and the languages of the children."
  • "Create posters and charts using pictures, English, and languages of the children."

Strategies TEACHERS AND CAREGIVERS can use to facilitate children's EMERGENT READING—PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS:

  • "For English language learners, begin with sounds that children can pronounce easily and that don't conflict with those in their home language."

Strategies TEACHERS AND CAREGIVERS can use to facilitate children's EMERGENT WRITING:

  • "For English language learners, begin with sounds that children can pronounce easily and that don't conflict with those in their home language."
  • "Provide opportunities to talk about what children notice about different writing systems (especially appropriate for English language learners)."

Washington

Washington State Early Learning and Development Guidelines: Birth through 3rd Grade [PDF, 8MB] (2012)

Introduction
How Children Learn
"Learning starts with families and communities."
"Family and community traditions, languages and activities are the foundation for children's learning and development."

"Young children can learn more than one language."
"Learning two or more languages or dialects...benefits a child in a number of ways. These benefits include a higher level of thinking and reasoning abilities, and better problem solving and listening skills...[B]eing fluent in their home language or dialect of English is part of preserving and connecting with their culture. Children who are learning more than one language or dialect may experience a silent period or seem to be learning more slowly...because they are absorbing the sounds and learning the words of the new language. For most children, learning more than one language does not lead to delays in speech or language development."

Learning Tribal language when English is spoken at home.
"Many tribal children in Washington speak mainly or only English in their homes. To restore their languages, tribes are helping their families and communities to learn and use as much of their Native language as they can around their children. For tribal children, learning their Native language is an important part of forming their identity. Children who learn a dialect of English at home first, then their tribal language and school/formal English, need to know that both their home language and their tribal language are valued. Child care professionals and teachers can foster children's home and tribal language development while helping them gain solid skills in school/formal English."

Respecting the home language and adding English.
"Caregivers, child care professionals and teachers need to respect and foster the languages of their children. Doing so can go a long way toward supporting children's social and emotional development and academic achievement. Language patterns and structure vary from one language to another. Some cultures place more importance on talking and some on nonverbal communication. Adults need to take these factors into account when considering the child's progress in learning school/formal English.

Caregivers, child care professionals and teachers can honor multiple languages and cultures by:

  • Using pictures, props and gestures, as needed.
  • Using gestures to show what an expected action is, while saying the words to provide a label.
  • Learning words and phrases of the child's language.
  • Learning and teaching a song in the child's language. Providing books, pictures and labels that reflect the child's language/culture (while recognizing that some languages rely more on oral tradition than on writing).
  • Encouraging the child or family to teach the child's classmates a song or tell a story from their language and culture.
  • Inviting families to explain the differences in expected behaviors between home and the care/school setting."

Guiding Principles
"Every child...has diverse strengths rooted in his or her family's unique culture, heritage, language, beliefs, and circumstances."
"[W]e are committed to...

  • Promoting the retention of home language and culture."

Early Learning and Development Guidelines

  1. Building relationships
    Interactions with peers
    Ideas to try with children:
    Toddlers (16 to 36 Months)
    • "Help your child learn some words in peers' home language."
  2. Communicating (literacy):
    "Note: Communication skills begin before birth. Language is an important part of cultural identity. Language skills begin in the child's home language(s). Tribal children may be learning their tribal language at the same time as a home language. Bilingual and bicultural families may speak more than one language at home.
  3. Speaking and listening (language development)
    "Children may:
    Toddlers (16 to 36 Months)

    • "When learning more than one language, the child might not use words equally in both languages."
    • "Speak clearly enough in home language to be understood most of the time."
    • "Remember and follow simple directions in home language and attempt to make sense of directions that include gestures...in a second language."

    Ages 3 to 4 Years

    • "Show preference for the home language."
    • "Know three to seven words in tribal language (if the family has one) and use them regularly."

    Ages 4 to 5 Years

    • "Know and use several hundred words in home language."

    Ideas to try with children:
    Young Infants (Birth to 11 Months)

    • "Support use of the home language."

    Toddlers (16 to 36 Months)

    • "Use as wide a vocabulary as you can when talking with your child in the home language."
    • "Read books or tell stories in the child's home language and in other languages, if possible...."
    • "Let a child learning two languages ask and answer questions first in his or her home language or dialect. Show that you value the home language."

    Ages 3 to 4 Years

    • "Use tribal language or home language for frequently used terms..."

    Ages 4 to 5 Years

    • When working with a child learning in two languages, use pictures, props and gestures, as needed."

    Writing
    "Children may:
    Ages 4 to 5 Years

    • "Explore writing letters in different languages."

    Ideas to try with children:
    Ages 3 to 4 Years

    • "Show words from child's home language or tribal language if it has a written form."

West Virginia

West Virginia Early Learning Standards Framework: Infant/Toddler [PDF, 730KB]

Standards Framework:
Guiding Principles
"Learning can be affected by things such as developmental delays, culture, poverty, language, individual circumstances, and other risk factors."

Language and Literacy
Introduction
"Some children may have the experience of growing up in a home where English is the second language. This is an opportunity for the provider and family to work together so that the child may benefit from this unique experience."

Foundation: Listening and Understanding
Mobile Infant: 6-18 Months
What You Might See
"[M]obile infant understands the names of familiar objects in his home language."
What You Might Do
"Use familiar words in child's home language as you point to items."

Foundation: Communicating and Speaking
Young Infant: 0-8 Months
What You Might See
"The young infant makes cooing sounds and other sounds of home language."
What You Might Do
"Work with the family to become familiar with basic phrases of the child's home language." "Talk to the young infant in the child's home language regularly."

Mobile Infant: 6-18 Months
What You Might Do
"Incorporate child's home language whenever possible."

Older Infant: 16-36 Months
What You Might See
"The older infant uses home language with a vocabulary of 50 or more words or signs and uses two or three word sentences."

Early Learning Standards Framework Content Standards and Learning Criteria for West Virginia Pre-Kindergarten [PDF, 93KB]

Guiding Principles

  1. "...English Language Learners develop best in inclusive early education settings."
  2. "Development and learning are embedded in culture.Early education settings and programs must be purposefully planned to expand the child's awareness and understanding of cultures and people different from his/herself."

    "Culture influences cognition. The way the child thinks, remembers, listens and communicates is a reflection of the social context (family and society) in which the child lives. Therefore, the teacher must embed within the environment, aspects of the various cultures represented into the classroom. Cultural aspects must be included in a nature kind of way---not by isolated activities. Each child's home culture and language are brought into classroom as part of the shared culture of the class."

Domain: Social and Emotional Development
Knowledge of Family and Community

  1. "Understands similarities and respects differences among people, such as...cultures, language, and family structures."

Wisconsin

Wisconsin Model Early Learning Standards: Birth to First Grade, 4th Edition [PDF, 1MB] (2013)

"The...Standards are published in English, Spanish, and Hmong."

Language Development and Communication
Rationale
"Children whose home language is not English may demonstrate literacy skills in their primary language before they do so in English."
Performance Standard
Early Literacy
C.EL.1
Imitates sounds.
Sample Behaviors of Children

  • "Child produces sounds found in their home language."

Approaches to Learning
Performance Standard
Diversity in Learning
C.EL.1
Depends on adults to communicate about their routines, cultural preferences, and learning styles.
Sample Strategies for Adults:

  • "Use simple sign language for child to signal common activities and help children who do not speak the primary language."

Asks questions of adults about the differences between various routines, practices, and languages in a variety of settings.
Sample Strategies for Adults:

  • "Use simple sign language for child to signal common activities and help children who do not speak the primary language."
  • "Honor the language of the child and access resources to enhance learning in his/her primary language as well as other languages."

Wyoming

Wyoming Department of Education Early Childhood Readiness Standards [PDF, 526KB]

Standards: 3-5
Early Learning Guidelines (infant/toddler) under development.

I. Language
A. Listening and Understanding (Receptive Language)
Performance Indicator

  1. "Progress in listening to and understanding English, (for non-English speaking children)."

B. Speaking and Communicating (Expressive Language)
Performance Indicator

  1. "For non-English speaking children, progress is made in speaking English."

[Wyoming] Early Learning Guidelines (2011)

Guiding Principles & Practices
Practices for Principle Two
"Work with families to help children whose first language is not English to continue speaking their home language as they learn English…Most of all, think of the diversity of children and families as something to celebrate."
Practices for Principle Three
"Show you understand each child's language, behavior, and feelings."

Communication: Birth to 6 Months
Language Comprehension (Receptive Language)
"Applies to child's and family's native language, and the language in which the child is fluent..."
Language Expression (Expressive Language)
"Applies to child's and family's native language, and the language in which the child is fluent..."

Communication: (6-12 months)
Language Comprehension
Includes a box on Dual Language Learners:
"New research states that children are able to learn two languages at the same time and milestones are reached within the same age span in both monolingual and bilingual children. Supporting development of the home language facilitates development of self-awareness, thereby helping infants and toddlers make meaning of their environment and feel a sense of security. However, while it may be preferable, it is not necessary for a teacher to speak the home language of infants and toddlers in order to effectively support the child's dual language acquisition."

Last Reviewed: April 2015

Last Updated: May 15, 2015