Parents as Teachers Foundational 2 Curriculum: Three Years Through Kindergarten has been revised several times since Parents as Teachers began in 1984. This review presents evidence from two studies on the effectiveness of the current version, which was introduced in 2010. The first study is a recent evaluation of the Parents as Teachers home-visiting intervention, including Parents as Teachers Foundational Curriculum 1 and 2 (Lahti, Evans, Goodman, Schmidt, & LeCroy, 2019). The second study uses a descriptive design to investigate the Parents as Teachers Foundational 2 Curriculum as part of the Parents Possible home visiting program (Lopez & Bernstein, 2016). More rigorous research investigating Parents as Teachers Foundational 2 Curriculum is needed in order to establish evidence for positive effects of this curriculum on child school readiness outcomes.
Studies of prior versions of the curriculum (e.g., Born to Learn) and the version used with younger children (e.g., Parents as Teachers Foundational Curriculum) also show evidence for positive child outcomes (e.g., Schaub, Ramseier, Neuhauser, Burkhardt, & Lanfranchi, 2019; Zigler, Pfannenstiel, & Seitz, 2008). They are not included here because this review includes only studies of the current version of Parents as Teachers Foundational 2 Curriculum: 3 Years Through Kindergarten.
While this report focuses on evidence for child outcomes in the school readiness domains, Parents as Teachers has also been associated with positive parenting outcomes. For more information, please see the Parenting Curricula for Home-Based Delivery Database.
In addition, the Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness (HomVEE) review presents information on associations between Parents as Teachers and outcomes in maternal and child health and other domains.
Rigorous Research Design: The evaluation of the Parents as Teachers home visiting intervention used a quasi-experimental design. The Parents Possible study used a pre- and post-descriptive design without comparison groups.
Sample and Generalizability: The evaluation of the Parents as Teachers home visiting intervention included children who were enrolled in the Puma County, AZ public schools. The children were predominantly Hispanic, and most qualified for free and reduced lunch in the public schools. The Parents Possible program is located in Colorado. The sample included predominantly White parents, mostly low-income, with many reporting Hispanic ethnicity. The children were 3 to 6 years old.
Fidelity of Implementation: The studies did not report information about training or fidelity of implementation.
Parenting Outcomes: The evaluation of the Parents as Teachers home visiting intervention analyzed parenting outcomes using a pre- and post-test design without a comparison group. It found positive parenting outcomes for caregiver interactions during play, as well as for a variety of protective factors (e.g., family functioning, social support, and concrete support). While scores on nurturing and attachment were slightly higher at post-test, the difference was not significant. The Parents Possible evaluation did not investigate effects on parenting outcomes.
Child Outcomes: The evaluation of the Parents as Teachers home-visiting intervention assessed children's elementary math achievement, elementary reading achievement (on two measures), and English language learner achievement (i.e., English reading and writing achievement for English language learners). It found a small-to-medium positive effect on children's elementary math achievement and a small positive effect on English language learner achievement. While there were also small positive effects on children's elementary reading achievement, the effect only reached significance for one of the measures. The Parents Possible evaluation used a school readiness assessment measure to investigate the program's effects on preschool children, including children's understanding of colors, letters, numbers/counting, sizes/comparison, and shapes. Children had a higher percentile rank in all domains after participating in the program than they did at program entry.