Currículo

Currículo de estudios básicos Los padres como maestros: Prenatal a 3 años

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Resumen

Descripción del currículo

Currículo de estudios básicos Los padres como maestros: Prenatal a 3 años promueve un enfoque reflexivo para apoyar las asociaciones entre los visitadores del hogar y las familias, la relación padres-hijos y el bienestar de la familia. Los recursos en línea incluyen materiales para orientar al visitador del hogar al enfoque, actividades para las familias y los niños, información sobre la crianza de los hijos y recursos para apoyar el desarrollo familiar. 

Resumen de la evaluación

  • Promueve diferentes prácticas de visitas al hogar basadas en la investigación para forjar relaciones positivas y receptivas con las familias.
  • Promueve prácticas de crianza de los hijos basadas en la investigación para apoyar el desarrollo y el aprendizaje de los niños.
  • Apoya el desarrollo y aprendizaje de los niños en todos los dominios del Marco de Head Start sobre los resultados del aprendizaje temprano de los niños (ELOF, sigla en inglés).
  • Incluye un proceso integral para establecer y fomentar las metas a nivel familiar y a nivel del niño.
  • Describe un proceso específico para la observación y evaluación continuas.
  • Proporciona herramientas y recursos para que los visitadores del hogar y las familias planifiquen conjuntamente las visitas al hogar y la socialización en grupo.
  • Ofrece capacitación y materiales integrales y estandarizados para respaldar la implementación.
  • Promueve experiencias enriquecedoras de aprendizaje para padres e hijos basadas en los intereses y las fortalezas de los niños.
  • Fomenta amplias oportunidades para que los bebés y los niños pequeños participen en el movimiento, el juego y la exploración activa.
  • Proporciona orientación específica sobre interacciones y experiencias de aprendizaje culturalmente receptivas.
  • Incluye orientación específica sobre cómo apoyar el desarrollo y el aprendizaje de bebés y niños pequeños que aprenden en dos idiomas (DLL, sigla en inglés).
  • Proporciona una orientación limitada sobre cómo garantizar que el entorno del hogar, los materiales de aprendizaje y las experiencias de aprendizaje sean accesibles para los niños con discapacidades, sospechas de retraso u otras necesidades especiales.
Website: https://parentsasteachers.org/foundational-training-curriculum

Detalles

Costo del currículo

Los costos de acceso a los materiales del currículo en línea varían.

Costo del desarrollo profesional

Los desarrolladores del currículo requieren una "Capacitación básica" de tres días para poder comprar el currículo.  Los costos del desarrollo profesional varían.

Comuníquese con el editor para obtener la información más actualizada sobre los costos del currículo y las ofertas actuales de desarrollo profesional.

Disponibilidad en otros idiomas

Como parte de los materiales del currículo se incluye una traducción al español del currículo (Programa de estudios básicos). 

Diferentes materiales del currículo se han traducido a los siguientes idiomas: árabe, birmano, chino, francés, alemán, griego, coreano, nepalí, portugués y turco. Estas traducciones se incluyen como parte de los materiales del currículo. 

Rango de edad objetivo

Programas basados en el hogar para madres embarazadas y niños desde el nacimiento hasta los 36 meses

Materiales del currículo revisados por evaluadores

Materiales de Currículo de estudios básicos Los padres como maestros: Prenatal a 3 años se revisaron en 2018. Entre estos materiales se encontraban:

  • Currículo de estudios básicos Los padres como maestros: Prenatal a 3 años (en línea),
  • formularios rellenables.

Evaluación y valoraciones

¿Qué significan las valoraciones?

  • Four star rating graphic Evidencia completa
  • Three star rating graphic Evidencia moderada
  • Two star rating graphic Evidencia mínima
  • One star rating graphic Sin evidencia

Criterio 1

Base empírica para los resultados del niño

La evidencia de la investigación demuestra que el currículo se ha asociado con los resultados positivos del niño. El currículo ha sido implementado y estudiado directamente en programas de visitas al hogar de la primera infancia, y la investigación ha demostrado efectos positivos y significativos en los resultados del niño. Se han obtenido pruebas de eficacia en estudios de investigación rigurosos, como ensayos controlados aleatorizados o diseños de regresión discontinua. Los estudios de investigación sobre el currículo han incluido de manera óptima varios grupos diversos de niños y familias.

Two star rating graphicEvidencia mínima

Parents as Teachers Foundational Curriculum: Prenatal to 3 (Parents as Teachers) has been evaluated in many studies since it began in 1984; and over the years, the curriculum has been revised several times. This review presents evidence for the current version of the Parents as Teachers curriculum, which was introduced in 2010. The curriculum has been investigated as part of the Zurich Equity Prevention Project with Parents' Participation and Integration (ZEPPELIN) intervention study (Neuhauser, Ramseier, Shaub, Burkhardt, & Lanfranchi, 2018) and as part of an evaluation of the Parents Possible home visiting program used with families of preschoolers (Lopez & Bernstein, 2016). Studies of prior versions of the curriculum (e.g., Born to Learn) also show evidence for positive child outcomes (e.g., Drotar, Robinson, Jeavons, & Lester Kirchner, 2009; Zigler, Pfannenstiel, & Seitz, 2008), but they are not included in this review because the current curriculum is a substantial update from prior versions.

Other studies presented by the publisher have found positive child outcomes for children whose families participated in Parents as Teachers (e.g., Parents as Teachers, 2016). These studies are not included in this review because they were not published in peer-reviewed journals. More rigorous research investigating the current version of the curriculum is needed in order to establish evidence for positive effects of this curriculum on child school readiness outcomes.

While this report focuses on evidence for child outcomes in the school readiness domains, Parents as Teachers has also been associated with positive parenting outcomes. For more information on Parents as Teachers as a parenting curriculum, please see the Home-Based Parenting Curriculum Database. In addition, the Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness (HomVEE) review presents information on associations between Parents as Teachers and outcomes in maternal and child health and other domains.

Rigorous Research Design: The ZEPPELIN study used an experimental design. The Parents Possible evaluation used a pre-post descriptive design without comparison groups.

Sample and Generalizability: The ZEPPELIN study took place in Switzerland. The sample included families of children who were less than 4 months old when the study began. Families had psychosocial risk factors, and most were immigrants to Switzerland. The Parents Possible program is located in Colorado. The sample included predominantly White parents, most of low income, and with many reporting Hispanic ethnicity. Children were 3 to 6 years old.

Fidelity of Implementation: The studies did not report information about training or fidelity of implementation.

Parenting Outcomes: The ZEPPELIN study found a positive effect of Parents as Teachers on maternal sensitivity when children were 12 months old, though not when children were 24 or 36 months old. The Parents Possible evaluation did not investigate effects on parenting outcomes. 

Child Outcomes: The ZEPPELIN study analyzed children's expressive and receptive language development at 12, 24, and 36 months. It found a small positive effect on children's expressive language at 36 months for children whose families participated in Parents as Teachers. The Parents Possible evaluation investigated the program's effects on preschool children's school readiness, including children's understanding of colors, letters, numbers and counting, sizes and comparison, and shapes. Children whose families participated in Parents as Teachers as part of the Parents Possible program had a higher percentile rank in all domains after participating in the program than they did at program entry.

References:

Drotar, D., Robinson, J., Jeavons, L., & Lester Kirchner, H. (2009). A randomized, controlled evaluation of early intervention: The Born to Learn curriculum. Child: Care, Health and Development, 35(5), 643–649. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.2008.00915.x

Lopez, A., & Bernstein, J. (2016). Parent Possible: 2016 Parents as Teachers (PAT) evaluation. Denver, CO: OMNI Institute. Retrieved from http://media.wix.com/ugd/9c9066_b2b844df114646ee8d1b9404148fc5cb.pdf

Neuhauser, A., Ramseier, E., Shaub, S., Burkhardt, S. C. A., & Lanfranchi, A. (2018). Mediating role of maternal sensitivity: Enhancing language development in at-risk families. Infant Mental Health Journal, 39(5), 532–536.

Parents as Teachers. (2016). Evaluating an Investing in Innovations project to improve education outcomes for American Indian children. St. Louis, MO. Retrieved from https://static1.squarespace.com/static/56be46a6b6aa60dbb45e41a5/t/57eea52515d5db8fe16501ab/1475257637451/babyface_report_pat_2016.pdf

Zigler, E., Pfannenstiel, J. C., & Seitz, V. (2008). The Parents as Teachers program and school success: A replication and extension. Journal of Primary Prevention, 29(2), 103–120. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10935-008-0132-1

Criterio 2

Currículo basado en la investigación

El currículo proporciona contenido basado en la investigación y las prácticas de crianza para apoyar el desarrollo y el aprendizaje de los niños. Un currículo de visitas al hogar basado en la investigación es consistente con la investigación sobre prácticas eficaces de visitas al hogar y de crianza. Específicamente, promueve las prácticas de visitas al hogar y las interacciones que la investigación ha demostrado que son eficaces para involucrar a los padres y a las familias. Además, un currículo de visitas al hogar basado en la investigación promueve el conocimiento sobre la crianza, las actitudes y las prácticas que se han demostrado y que apoyan el aprendizaje y el desarrollo de los niños.

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Home Visiting Practices and Interactions: Parents as Teachers consistently promotes home visiting practices and interactions that research has shown to be effective in engaging parents and families. The curriculum provides comprehensive resources to support home visitors in building trusting and positive relationships with families, particularly through the introductory materials. For example, "The Parent Educator's Role in the Personal Visit" includes specific strategies for how home visitors can create equal partnerships with families. The curriculum also suggests many strategies for effective communication with families (e.g., active listening, open-ended questions). Various materials, including "The Strengthening Families Approach," encourage home visitors to adopt a strength-based perspective and point out what families are doing well in relation to the identified "protective factors." Parents as Teachers also offers specific guidance for how to follow the family's lead to jointly plan home visits (e.g., the "Foundational Personal Visit Plans" offer prompts for home visitors to collaborate with the family).

Parenting Practices: The curriculum consistently promotes parenting practices that research has shown to be effective in supporting children's development and learning. It emphasizes the importance of sensitive, responsive interactions to build secure attachment relationships with children. Various resources (e.g., "Ways to Build Attachment with Your Baby," "Attachment Is Good for Your Baby's Brain," "Attachment and Brain Development") highlight strategies to nurture children through responsive interactions with parents. Parents as Teachers also provides various resources for parents on how to use routines as opportunities to foster learning (e.g., "Recognizing, Creating, and Adapting Routines"). It supports parents in building children's social and emotional development, problem-solving skills, emerging mathematical thinking, and physical development. In addition, it supports families to promote a language and literacy-rich environment (e.g., through shared read-alouds, strategies to support different aspects of language development).

Criterio 3

Alcance y secuencia

El currículo incluye un alcance y una secuencia organizados del desarrollo para apoyar el aprendizaje de los niños. El alcance y la secuencia describen en qué se enfoca el currículo y de qué manera los planes y los materiales apoyan a los niños en los diferentes niveles del desarrollo. El alcance se refiere a las áreas de desarrollo abordadas en el currículo; la secuencia incluye planes y materiales para experiencias de aprendizaje que van progresivamente de menor a mayor complejidad, con la meta de apoyar a los niños mientras avanzan a través de las progresiones del desarrollo. Un currículo rico en contenido garantiza que las secuencias de experiencias de aprendizaje incluyan múltiples oportunidades relacionadas para que los niños exploren un concepto o una habilidad con una profundidad cada vez mayor. Las secuencias de experiencias de aprendizaje deben ser flexibles para responder a los intereses, las fortalezas y las necesidades individuales de los niños.

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Scope: The curriculum clearly identifies five developmental domains: Language, Cognitive, Motor, Social-Emotional, and Approaches to Learning. Each "Activity Page" includes specific skills, behaviors, and concepts from the domains that children might be working on as they engage in the activity. Additionally, the "Milestones" and "Child Development Charts" include these domains as the overarching areas of child development.

Sequence: The curriculum provides a sequence of learning experiences that supports children as they build knowledge and skills in each of the ELOF domains. In a series of handouts ("Your Baby's Social-Emotional Development," "Your Baby's Cognitive Development," "Your Baby's Motor Development," and "Your Baby's Language Development"), the curriculum provides specific strategies to support children's learning and development at different age levels (birth to 36 months). The curriculum offers multiple related opportunities for children to explore or learn concepts or skills in all domains. Additionally, Parents as Teachers gives specific guidance on how to individualize sequences of learning experiences based on children's interests, strengths, and needs (e.g., "Reviewing the milestones, assessments, and previous personal visit record and considering the interests, preferences, and culture of the family allow you to choose an activity page that best suits the family's needs for that visit.").

Criterio 4

Alineación con el Marco de Head Start sobre los resultados del aprendizaje temprano de los niños (ELOF)

El currículo está alineado con el Marco de Head Start sobre los resultados del aprendizaje temprano de los niños (ELOF, sigla en inglés). Alinear un currículo con el ELOF determina el grado en que los dominios y subdominios del ELOF se abordan en el currículo. Los currículos que están totalmente alineados con el ELOF son integrales y abarcan todas las áreas de aprendizaje y desarrollo de los niños descritas en el ELOF.

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Alignment with the ELOF: A thorough review of all the curriculum materials indicates that Parents as Teachers is fully aligned with the ELOF domains and sub-domains. The curriculum materials, including learning experiences, learning goals, parenting practices, and guidance for supporting parents, support children across the ELOF sub-domains.

Criterio 5

Metas de aprendizaje para los niños

El currículo especifica metas de aprendizaje para los niños. Las metas de aprendizaje del currículo son objetivos para el desarrollo y el aprendizaje de los niños en todos los dominios. Estas deben ser medibles y apropiadas para el desarrollo. Las metas de aprendizaje medibles para los niños se centran en habilidades, comportamientos y conocimientos que son observables; las metas de aprendizaje apropiadas para el desarrollo se corresponden con progresiones de desarrollo bien establecidas. Las experiencias de aprendizaje apoyan el progreso de los niños hacia las metas de aprendizaje. Además de las metas proporcionadas por el currículo, los visitadores del hogar colaboran con los padres y las familias para identificar las metas individuales para el aprendizaje y el desarrollo de sus hijos.

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Learning Goals: Parents as Teachers specifies measurable, developmentally appropriate goals for children's learning and development that are consistently supported by the learning experiences. "Child Development Charts" identify goals for children in four domains—Language, Cognitive, Motor, and Social-Emotional—for every few months from birth to 36 months. In addition, in the "Goal Setting" resource, the curriculum provides specific guidance on how to engage families in identifying individual goals for their children's learning and development.

Criterio 6

Evaluación continua del niño

El currículo proporciona orientación sobre la evaluación continua de los niños. La evaluación continua del niño es el proceso en el que las familias y los visitadores del hogar observan y recopilan información para comprender y apoyar el desarrollo de los niños y el aprendizaje a lo largo del tiempo. La información recopilada a través de la observación ayuda a los visitadores y a las familias a apoyar los intereses y necesidades individuales de los niños. La información de las observaciones en curso también se puede utilizar para completar periódicamente instrumentos de evaluación estandarizados y estructurados para evaluar el progreso del desarrollo de los niños.

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Ongoing Observation: A variety of resources in the curriculum describe a process for observing and discussing children's development and using this information for home visit planning. For example, "Be an observer of your child" describes specific strategies for families to use as they observe their child (e.g., "Take time to just watch your baby. You'll soon see changes in the sounds she makes, the way she notices her surroundings, and the way she holds and moves her body."). The "What's Special About this Age?" series of resources for every few months of development provides prompts for each of the milestones to guide observation (e.g., "Look for your baby to..."). In addition, the "Foundational Personal Visit Plans" offer opportunities for parents to share and discuss their observations of children.

Standardized and Structured Assessment Instruments: Parents as Teachers provides guidance on using the "Milestones by School Readiness" charts as a standardized and structured assessment instrument to regularly assess children's developmental progress. "Guidance for Ongoing Assessment Using the Milestones by School Readiness Domain" describes the importance of parents and home visitors regularly observing children and using the data that they collect to inform home visit planning. This document also provides information on the instrument's reliability and validity, as well as how to use the instrument appropriately for diverse groups of children (e.g., children with disabilities, suspected delays, or other special needs).

Criterio 7

Relaciones e interacciones entre la familia y el visitador del hogar

El currículo promueve relaciones e interacciones positivas entre el visitador del hogar y la familia. Una relación positiva de un visitador del hogar con los padres y las familias a través de interacciones que son cultural y lingüísticamente receptivas forma la base de las visitas al hogar. Un enfoque basado en las fortalezas para crear relaciones con las familias proporciona una base para que los visitadores del hogar interactúen con las familias. El currículo proporciona estrategias sobre cómo los visitadores del hogar pueden establecer relaciones positivas e interacciones receptivas con los padres y las familias. El currículo también proporciona estrategias para reunir a las familias en grupos para facilitar el apoyo entre pares.

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Relationships with Parents and Families: Parents as Teachers offers specific guidance, integrated throughout the curriculum materials, on how to build positive relationships with families. For example, "The Parent Educator's Role in the Personal Visit" provides specific strategies for how home visitors can build and sustain positive relationships with families. It describes three roles for home visitors: partners, facilitators, and reflectors. "When utilizing these first two roles, parent educators create time, space, and a safe atmosphere in which families are able to wonder and consider. As reflectors, parent educators use evidence-based practices to prompt reflections and generate awareness." In addition, the curriculum provides a variety of materials for both home visitors and families on how to support the home visitor-family relationship (e.g., "Welcome to Parents as Teachers," "The Strengthening Families Approach").

Responsive Interactions with Parents and Families: The curriculum provides specific guidance on how to engage in responsive interactions with diverse families. "Facilitating," a section of "The Parent Educator's Role in the Personal Visit," describes strategies for supporting responsive interactions with families (e.g., "Observing, listening and learning," "Gaining parents' perspectives," "Responsiveness and flexibility"). In addition, each home visit begins with "Connect, Reflect, and Agree," which provides time for home visitors and families to spend time getting to know one another, reflecting on what has been happening with the child, and agree on what will happen during the visit.

Peer Support: The curriculum offers specific guidance for how to bring families together to facilitate peer support through "Group Connections," a series of resources on group socializations. "Group Connections" provides a planning guide for group socializations, as well as suggestions for partnering with families to plan events.

Criterio 8

Desarrollo profesional y materiales para apoyar la implementación

El currículo ofrece desarrollo profesional y materiales para apoyar la implementación y la mejora continua. El desarrollo profesional incluye la adquisición de los conocimientos y las habilidades requeridas para la implementación eficaz de un currículo. Los procedimientos de capacitación estandarizados incluyen formación inicial y continua para apoyar a los visitadores del hogar a medida que aprenden a implementar un currículo con fidelidad. Los procedimientos de capacitación estandarizados proporcionan contenido uniforme y métodos de impartición en las sesiones de capacitación. Los materiales del currículo para apoyar la implementación de los mismos incluyen recursos que vienen con un currículo para ayudar a los visitadores del hogar a entender cómo utilizarlo. Los materiales pueden incluir también recursos para ayudar a los gerentes de educación y a los coaches a apoyar a los visitadores del hogar para que implementen el currículo de manera eficaz.

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Professional Development: Parents as Teachers offers comprehensive, standardized initial and ongoing training. A three-day "Foundational Training" is required in order to purchase and use the curriculum. A variety of follow-up trainings (e.g., "Interactions Across Abilities," "Diversity in Families") are offered at an additional cost, both online through the Knowledge Studio and in person. The curriculum developers also offer customized trainings to address individual program needs.

Curriculum Materials to Support Implementation: The curriculum provides comprehensive materials and guidance to facilitate understanding and implementation of the curriculum. Parents as Teachers offers a myriad of well-organized resources with clear instructions on how to use them. For example, the introduction to the curriculum provides a theoretical foundation and tools to orient the home visitor to the materials. The eight "Foundational Personal Visit Plans" provide a framework for the first few home visits. Materials also include a specific process for guiding the next home visit plans. In addition, the sections on "Parenting Behaviors" and "Development-Centered Parenting" offer resources and activities for home visitors and parents on different parenting topics. The "Parent-Child Interactions" section includes activities for parents and children to do together, and the "Family Well-Being" section provides resources for home visitors and parents on supporting family development. Each resource in the curriculum is labeled with the intended audience (e.g., parent educator and/or parent) and includes specific instructions for use.

  • Fidelity Tool: Parents as Teachers does not offer a fidelity tool to monitor curriculum implementation.

Criterio 9

Interacciones y experiencias de aprendizaje

El currículo promueve experiencias de aprendizaje valiosas para los niños para apoyar el desarrollo entre los dominios. Las experiencias de aprendizaje valiosas se producen en el contexto de las relaciones receptivas. El currículo ayuda a los visitadores del hogar a apoyar la relación familia-hijo como la base para el aprendizaje en todos los dominios y anima a los padres y las familias a involucrar a los niños en el juego, el movimiento y la exploración activa. El currículo también proporciona orientación sobre cómo los padres y las familias pueden interactuar con los niños para extender su exploración, pensamiento y comunicación. Los visitadores del hogar y las familias colaboran para planificar experiencias y rutinas de aprendizaje para los niños que se basan en la cultura, el idioma y las preferencias de la familia.

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Family-Child Relationship: Parents as Teachers offers specific guidance, integrated throughout the curriculum materials, on how home visitors facilitate nurturing relationships between families and children. Various resources in the curriculum provide tools, information, and specific strategies for home visitors to support the family-child relationship. For example, "The Importance of Parent-Child Interaction," a resource for home visitors, describes how different types of interaction support children's development in the first three years. It offers strategies to support parents in these interactions. In addition, the curriculum outlines a specific process for home visitors to use during home visits to support the family-child relationship (e.g., "Parent Educator's Role in the Personal Visit" is a resource for home visitors that describes the home visitor's and the family's roles in detail).

Active Exploration and Play: The curriculum provides specific guidance on how families engage children in ongoing active exploration and play throughout the curriculum. Many "Activity Pages" (e.g., "Outdoor Exploration: Discovering and Observing," "Baby Discovery Jug: Dropping and Retrieving") suggest opportunities for families to support children in exploring open-ended materials, playing, and discovering new concepts. In addition, a variety of "Parent Handouts" and "Parent Educator Resources" (e.g., "The Value of Play," "Play Is Learning," "Feeling Safe While Exploring and Taking 'Good' Risks") provide strategies and information on how to support active exploration and play.

Interactions that Extend Children's Learning: Parents as Teachers provides specific guidance embedded throughout curriculum materials for how parents and families can extend children's exploration, thinking, and communication, particularly through the "Continued Learning" call-out boxes on the "Activity Pages." "Continued Learning" offers specific suggestions for parents to extend children's learning from the activities, such as asking open-ended questions and providing supportive language and ideas.

Individualization: The curriculum provides specific guidance embedded throughout materials on how to collaborate with families to develop caregiving routines and learning experiences that are responsive to children and families. "The Benefits of Activity Pages" describes specific strategies for adapting the "Activity Pages" for children with disabilities, suspected delays, or other special needs. "The Personal Visit Planning Guide" also includes information on how to adapt activities based on a family's interests, strengths, and culture.

Criterio 10

Entornos de aprendizaje y rutinas

El currículo proporciona orientación sobre cómo apoyar a los padres y las familias para lograr que el hogar sea un entorno de aprendizaje valioso y para establecer rutinas apropiadas para el desarrollo. Un entorno de aprendizaje del hogar que fomente el desarrollo ofrece horarios apropiados para el desarrollo, rutinas y oportunidades en el interior o al aire libre que proveen opciones para jugar, explorar y experimentar. El entorno de aprendizaje en el hogar debe incluir materiales y suministros apropiados para la edad. El currículo debe apoyar la selección de materiales de aprendizaje apropiados para el desarrollo procedentes del hogar y la cultura que fomenten la exploración y la investigación de composición abierta en los niños.

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Environment: In several resources for home visitors and families (e.g., "Space and Structure for Your Little Explorer," "Designing and Guiding as Your Child Grows," "Safe and Healthy Home Environments"), Parents as Teachers provides specific guidance for how to set up a home environment that supports exploration and development. However, the curriculum offers limited guidance on how to make the home environment accessible for a child with a disability, suspected delay, or other special need.

Learning Materials: Parents as Teachers includes many resources with specific guidance on using developmentally appropriate learning materials found in the home to foster open-ended exploration and inquiry. For example, "Making the Most of Toys" describes how open-ended materials that are often found in the home offer opportunities for different kinds of exploration that support children's learning. The curriculum provides limited guidance on how to incorporate learning materials that are accessible to children with disabilities, suspected delays, or other special needs.

Routines: Parents as Teachers provides a variety of resources throughout the curriculum with specific guidance on how to support early routines that are responsive to children and foster learning (e.g., "Your Baby's Sleep Routines," "Reasons to Read to Your Baby"). The section "Recognizing, Creating, and Adapting Routines" describes the importance of and strategies for creating individualized routines for children (e.g., considering a baby's temperament before implementing a routine) and offers tips for collaborating with parents around routines.

Criterio 11

Receptividad cultural

El currículo apoya la receptividad cultural. La receptividad cultural es un enfoque basado en fortalezas para las relaciones y el cuidado arraigado en el respeto y aprecio por el papel que desempeña la cultura en el aprendizaje y el desarrollo de los niños. Un currículo culturalmente receptivo les indica a los visitadores del hogar que incorporen la cultura de la familia a las visitas del hogar. El currículo guía a los visitadores del hogar para crear relaciones e interacciones con familias de diversos orígenes culturales; para aprender sobre las expectativas, prácticas y preferencias de las familias en apoyo al aprendizaje de sus hijos; y trabajar con los padres y las familias para incorporar su cultura y tradiciones en las visitas al hogar.

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Interactions: In several resources throughout the curriculum, Parents as Teachers provides specific guidance on engaging in culturally responsive interactions with diverse children and families. "Three Steps to Cultural Competence" includes detailed information on and strategies for how home visitors can reflect on their own culture, as well as how culture may affect interactions with diverse families (e.g., "Partner with families to find culturally appropriate applications of information or solutions to problems"). In addition, "Human Diversity, Cultural Competence, and Parent Education" offers strategies for home visitors to consider when working with diverse families (e.g., "When disagreements arise, rather than seeking solely to educate the parents, parent educators should facilitate a mutual sharing of information.").

Learning Experiences: The curriculum provides specific guidance in a variety of curriculum materials on how to collaborate with families to plan or adapt learning experiences based on families' traditions, cultures, values, and beliefs. For example, "Human Diversity, Cultural Competence, and Parent Education" gives suggestions for making learning experiences responsive to a family's culture (e.g., using materials from the home, "considering family values when facilitating problem-solving or goal-setting"). In addition, throughout various activities in the curriculum, prompts are offered for home visitors to ensure that families' beliefs, traditions, and cultures are incorporated into learning experiences (e.g., in the introduction of "Developmental Topics," home visitors are offered prompts to consider a family's cultural perspective on parenting).

Criterio 12

Receptividad lingüística

El currículo apoya la receptividad lingüística. La receptividad lingüística se refiere a las prácticas que apoyan el aprendizaje, el desarrollo y la participación de los niños de diversos orígenes lingüísticos. Esta implica asociarse con las familias para apoyar intencionalmente el desarrollo y el aprendizaje de los niños que aprenden en dos idiomas (DLL, sigla en inglés). El currículo proporciona orientación a las familias para apoyar el idioma del hogar y también ofrece sugerencias sobre cómo exponer a los niños al inglés.

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Linguistic Responsiveness: Throughout the curriculum materials, including resources for home visitors and parent handouts, Parents as Teachers provides specific guidance on how home visitors can intentionally support parents and families in using their home language as well as in providing experiences that expose children to English. For example, "Bilingual Families: A Special Advantage" describes the developmental benefits that children gain when they are spoken to in their home language (e.g., "cognitive advantages," "better selective attention"). A parent handout, "Your Toddler Knows Two Languages," describes what to expect of children who are DLLs. It offers strategies to support children in their language development. In addition, some activities include prompts to explore the home language (e.g., "Helping Parents Share Music with Their Child").

Criterio 13

Individualización para niños con discapacidades, sospecha de retrasos u otras necesidades especiales

El currículo proporciona orientación sobre cómo ayudar a los padres y las familias a apoyar a su hijo con una discapacidad, sospecha de retraso u otra necesidad especial. Los visitadores del hogar y las familias pueden adaptar las experiencias de aprendizaje del currículo para un niño con una discapacidad u otra necesidad especial. El currículo incluye sugerencias de adaptaciones para el entorno físico de aprendizaje en el hogar y adaptaciones de experiencias de aprendizaje en el currículo para satisfacer las necesidades de aprendizaje y las fortalezas de los niños con discapacidades, sospechas de retrasos u otras necesidades especiales. El currículo también proporciona sugerencias sobre cómo los visitadores del hogar pueden proporcionar recursos y referencias a las familias según sea necesario.

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Resources and Referrals: Parents as Teachers provides specific guidance on referring families with a child with a disability, suspected delay, or other special need to resources in the community. "Difference and Delays in Development" describes the referral process in detail (e.g., gathering observations, screening, referring a child to a health care provider or early intervention system, eligibility for services determined by a "multi-transdisciplinary team"). It also discusses the importance of collaborating with other early intervention professionals if a child has an identified disability.

Learning Environment: The curriculum provides limited guidance on ensuring that the home environment and learning materials are accessible to children with disabilities, suspected delays, or other special needs. "The Benefits of Activity Pages" briefly mentions the importance of appropriate materials for a child with a disability, but no guidance is provided on adapting the home learning environment within this curriculum. The publisher offers a separate curriculum, Interactions Across Abilities: Supporting Families of Children with Special Needs, with more guidance on individualization for children with disabilities, suspected delays, or other special needs.

Parenting Practices and Interventions: Parents as Teachers offers general guidance on how to adapt the curriculum's learning experiences for a child with a disability, suspected delay, or other special need. "Supporting Learning in the Early Years" includes a section called "Adapting Activities" that provides strategies for how families can adapt activities to a child's developmental level (e.g., "parents might demonstrate different ways to do a new skill, offer other materials, or guide their child's hand or body so she feels successful"). However, many of the activities in the curriculum do not include specific adaptations for a child with a disability, suspected delay, or other special need. The publisher offers a separate curriculum, Interactions Across Abilities: Supporting Families of Children with Special Needs, with more guidance on individualization for children with disabilities, suspected delays, or other special needs.

Criterio 14

Individualización basada en intereses, fortalezas y necesidades

El currículo ofrece orientación sobre cómo individualizar en función de los intereses, fortalezas y necesidades de las familias y los niños. La individualización es un proceso de colaboración con las familias para planear las visitas al hogar y experiencias de aprendizaje que responden a las familias y los niños. Los visitadores del hogar y las familias reflexionan sobre sus observaciones del niño y juntos planifican cómo apoyar el aprendizaje y el desarrollo de cada niño. Cuando las experiencias de aprendizaje se adaptan a los intereses de los niños y tienen lugar en el contexto de las rutinas regulares de la familia, son más atractivas y significativas para los niños. Debido a que los niños pueden variar en sus progresiones del desarrollo, también es importante que el currículo apoye a los visitadores del hogar y a las familias en la planificación de experiencias de aprendizaje que respondan a las fortalezas y necesidades individuales de los niños.

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Individualization Based on Interests: The curriculum provides specific guidance embedded throughout the materials on how to individualize both the overall home visit and the learning experiences based on children's interests. For example, the "Personal Visit Planning Guide" offers guidance on adapting activities based on a child's interests (e.g., "Based on the interests of the child or culture of the family, parent educators may adapt a parent-child activity by substituting some materials."). In addition, "Supporting Learning in the Early Years" highlights strategies for adapting activities based on a child's interests.

Individualization Based on Strengths and Needs: Parents as Teachers provides specific guidance on how to tailor home visits to be responsive to individual children's strengths and needs. For example, "The Benefits of Activity Pages" includes specific strategies for adapting activities based on the child's strengths and needs (e.g., "Consider the child's current developmental level and choose an activity that interests the child in order to enhance existing skills and encourage emerging ones."). Additionally, "Supporting Learning in the Early Years" describes a process of observing children to meet them where they are developmentally and adapting activities accordingly. Moreover, many of the "Activity Pages" describe scaffolding strategies to support children at varying levels of development.

Criterio 15

Desarrollo y bienestar familiar

El currículo apoya el desarrollo y el bienestar de la familia como el contexto para promover el desarrollo y el aprendizaje de los niños. Los niños se desarrollan en el contexto de sus sistemas familiares; las familias proporcionan una base de apoyo para el desarrollo de cada niño. Los visitadores del hogar apoyan el desarrollo y el bienestar familiar a través del proceso de establecimiento de metas familiares. Estos se asocian con las familias para identificar metas que aborden los desafíos familiares y apoyen el desarrollo y el bienestar de la familia. Los visitadores del hogar también les brindan a las familias recursos y referencias para apoyarlos a medida que trabajan hacia sus metas.

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Family Goals: Parents as Teachers includes a comprehensive process for setting family-level goals. The "Goal Setting" section provides information on creating SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, timely) goals; a process for evaluating progress; and reflection questions to support the process. Additionally, this section offers strategies for home visitors on how to intentionally engage families in this process (e.g., "Through your relationship, you are in a position to partner and collaborate with parents by responding to their identified needs, reframing those needs as goals, and facilitating conversations around how they can achieve their goals and what might be getting in the way.").

Ongoing Assessment of Progress Toward Family Goals: The curriculum describes a specific process for checking in on family goals, along with various tools to support families and home visitors in the process. The parent worksheet "Goal Setting: Begin with the End in Mind" provides specific prompts for families to reflect on, a proposed timeline for goals, action steps needed to achieve goals, information about the resources required, and space for check-ins and progress made. The "Goal Tracking Sheet" is a separate tool for home visitors and includes prompts to record family goals, along with check-in timelines and notes.

Resources and Referrals: Parents as Teachers provides specific guidance for referring families to resources in the community, particularly in the "Strengthening Families Approach" section of the introductory materials. "Protective Factor 4: Concrete support in times of need" describes the importance of connecting families with resources in the community they might need. It offers specific examples and prompts home visitors can use in conversations with families. The goal-setting process also includes prompts for home visitors to ensure families are connected to resources.