One of the major purposes of the home-based option is to help parents explore and experience where their child is developmentally, what interests the child, how the child learns in each domain, and how to support that learning through everyday routines and experiences. You can help parents understand early learning and development and what they can do to keep their child healthy and safe from injury. This affirms their role in promoting school readiness and positive health outcomes.
A second major purpose is to support the family in working toward their own goals. Joint planning is one of the keys to successful home visiting with families. An important vehicle for joint planning is developing positive, goal-oriented relationships between you and the family. By discussing what the child is doing currently and what he is about to do developmentally, you can address the child's and family's interests and future goals. Plan the visits together. Using the Family Partnership Agreement process, the home visitor can build on the family's goals for themselves and their child by asking simple, probing questions that will help them think about what they want for their child week by week. When the parents are engaged in the planning process and gathering of the materials, they are more likely to take a leadership role in interacting with their child.
You can support joint planning by:
- Carefully explaining from the beginning that the main reason of the home visit is to work with the family to explore the many ways parents can support their child's learning and development
- This can be done orally, in pamphlets, or as a contract
- You will probably need to regularly reinforce this joint effort through multiple strategies
- Home visits are also an opportunity for families to work on goals jointly created within the Family Partnership Agreement
- Reviewing together what happened during and what has happened since the last visit
- Repeating experiences from the last visit, as appropriate
- Making sure parents have the opportunity to discuss how the experience might work and why you suggest it by reviewing the joint plan made for this visit
- Using materials from the home, supporting parents through experiences or interactions planned for this visit;
- Observing and reflecting with parents during the activity
- Requesting input during any and all aspects of the home visit (e.g., "I wonder, does this seems like a good choice?" "Does this make sense to you?" "I feel like I'm not being clear.")
- Reviewing and reflecting on the visit with the parents
- Asking what parents hope to do before the next visit
- Asking what parents might find useful for the next visit and offering ideas, especially if you need to bring in other aspects of comprehensive services
- Exploring the family's health beliefs, values, and needs as appropriate
- Discussing and making a plan for the next visit
- Leaving a copy of the home visit plan with the parents
Watch a home visitor and mother discussing her child's developing skills. Together, they plan out what they might do on the next home visit to support Mason's skills using home materials.
What do you observe?
Answers may include:
- Home visitor briefly reviews what they did this week and asks the mother what she would like to do next week.
- Home visitor picks up a block and bangs it lightly in Mason's hand, talking to mother through the baby. Mother watches, smiles, and continues to say she would like to work on pulling up and lower body strength next week.
- Home visitor talks about finding things around the house that Mason can pull up on, pointing to a piece of furniture in the room that would be safe.
- Mother tells Mason to say "bye-bye," and he waves his fingers. She smiles and says that is the first time he has done that.
How can you apply what you observe from this brief interaction about joint planning to your home visits?
Answers may include:
- Joint planning doesn't have to be a long, involved process. It can simply be a few questions about what the child is doing or on what the parent would like to work. Then, the two of you can brainstorm what you might find in the home to support this development.
- Parents should be involved in the planning of home visits so they will have an investment in carrying out the home visit.
- If the parent is involved in gathering materials for the home visit, they will be more likely to take interest in engaging the child with the materials.
- Home visitor should be prepared with some questions that might engage the parent in jointly planning the next home visit.
Young children are by nature very curious and interested in exploring the world around them and how things work. Home visitors can work with parents to use the many day-to-day routines and activities in the home and community as learning opportunities. For example, getting dressed in the morning is an opportunity to talk about colors, the weather, and direction and spatial sense. Home visitors can help parents understand how these are school readiness activities.
What are children learning?
Many of the skills and concepts young children are learning are outlined in the ELOF. Through experiences with their parents and the environment in the first five years of life, children are establishing the foundation in the brain for all later knowledge. They develop the skills and abilities necessary for learning, such as the ability to pay attention, working memory, curiosity, problem-solving, and persistence. They learn the basic concepts needed in order to live within their own culture and family.
Children learn about themselves and how to use their bodies. Each child creates a sense of personal identity in the context of his or her family. The child develops an internal picture of him- or herself through his or her interactions with others and the environment. The child sees him- or herself as competent and likable, adventurous or shy, active or quiet. Each child learns how to be in relationships initially with his family and, increasingly, the outside world.
Children learn through their senses—by hearing meaningful language, by exploring and problem-solving, and by interacting with peers and adults. The environment and their relationships offer unlimited learning opportunities.
Using your program's selected curriculum and the ELOF, you can help parents offer child-focused, structured learning interactions and experiences by trying the ideas below.
- Observe the child with the parents, share your observations, and discuss what they might mean about the child's interests, goals, learning, and development.
- Use a research-based curriculum as a guide for interactions, experiences, and planning with the parents to support the child's learning and school readiness goals.
- Help parents explore the learning and developmental progression from earliest infancy to preschool years in every domain.
- Connect with parents about the learning opportunities in everyday routines. Parents and other caregivers are already promoting their children's learning as they interact sensitively and responsively during daily caretaking routines, often without knowing it. For example:
- When a father gently tickles his baby's feet and plays This Little Piggy Went to Market with her toes, she is learning that, "Daddy takes care of me. I can trust him to keep me comfortable. We play fun games together," and "I recognize these words."
- When a parent of a toddler lets the child struggle to put on her own socks and shoes, that child has a chance to practice small motor skills by using her hands and ﬁngers to manipulate the socks and shoes. She consequently learns that, "I am respected and trusted to do things myself. Mommy or Daddy is there to help me if I need it."
- Similarly, a preschooler who is allowed to help set the table is strengthening motor skills (e.g., how to walk and carry items), counting skills (e.g., four forks and four plates), color identiﬁcation (e.g., blue place mats and yellow napkins), and self-esteem (e.g., "I am a helper," "I can do things all by myself," and "Mommy trusts me with an important job.").
- Use materials from the home for play (e.g., sofa pillows to create an obstacle course for a crawler, measuring cups for stacking, fabric squares to fill and pull out of an empty tissue box), doing finger plays and singing songs, offering a pot and spoon, going outdoors, or joining in what the family was doing (folding laundry, washing dishes, or setting the table and counting).
- Talk to and listen to the child.
- Show the child photographs or pictures in magazines.
- Encourage families to get library cards and bring board books into the house.
- Help families recognize learning opportunities in their daily routines to teach young children healthy habits (e.g., how to cover a cough or wash hands after toileting).
- Look for opportunities to integrate health and learning experiences (e.g., hand washing together before a meal is both a healthy behavior and an opportunity to sing and rhyme!).
In this clip, a home visitor greets and then works with Mason and his mother on using homemade materials as a learning opportunity and following the child's lead, whether he is using the material in the manner intended or not.
What do you observe?
Answers may include:
- Home visitor greets the infant, Mason, and his parent
- Baby balances on one arm, which home visitor comments on and imitates
- Home visitor reviews what she and the mother talked about the week before regarding what Mason is doing and what they planned for this week
- Home visitor notices the paper-covered cans the mother made for the child and says to Mason how creative his mom is
- Mother demonstrates how Mason can use his hands to grasp and then drop blocks into the cans
- Mason grasps blocks but doesn't drop them into cans
- Home visitor comments that it's okay if he doesn't put them in the can; he is still picking them up and grasping
- Mother claps the blocks together, baby bangs one block on top of the other, and mother says, "Good job"
- The home visitor remains behind the baby or to the side of the mother-infant dyad, except when she is talking to the mother
- The home visitor asks the mother what else she has around the house that she and Mason could use to practice his grasp and release
- Mom says they use baby bottle caps and baby-wipes containers to drop things into
How can you apply what you observe to enhance learning opportunities in your home visits?
Answers may include:
- Use home materials for learning opportunities
- Pay attention to your physical position in relation to the parent-child dyad or triad
- Discuss the child's developing skills with the parents and what materials they have in the house that might support those skills
- Plan the next home visit using that discussion as a basis
- Support the parent in being responsible for the home visit
- Scaffold child's learning as needed (e.g., if the baby is not cooperating with activity, reframe what the baby is doing and what he is learning)
Reflect on why your physical position in relationship to the parent-child dyad makes a difference and how it might influence the learning opportunity.
Answers may include:
- It can change the baby's focus from parent to home visitor.
- It can make the home visitor the center of attention if she is facing the baby.
- It may take attention away from the parent, who then may withdraw from the learning experience.
- It may lead to a focus on conversation between the home visitor and parent and take away from engagement with the child.
What dimensions of development contributing to school readiness do you observe?
Answers may include:
- Perceptual, Motor, and Physical Development
- Fine motor: grasping, releasing, and banging
- Gross motor: sitting, bending, and balancing
- Social and Emotional Development
- Eye contact with mother and home visitor
- Back and forth play (e.g., banging blocks, imitation)
- Cuddles/hugs mother
- Approaches to Learning
- Initiative in balancing and playing with blocks
- Attentiveness toward mother and activity
- Curiosity in exploring characteristics of blocks, grasping, and banging
- Cognition and General Knowledge
- Exploration of sound and feel of blocks
- Language and Literacy
- Says "up" to be picked up
- Makes sounds
- Responds to mother's vocalization
Resource Type: Article
National Centers: Early Childhood Development, Teaching and Learning
Last Updated: June 11, 2019