Identification: Supplementary Materials

The following supplementary resources can help Head Start directors and staff identify disabilities and delays in children who are dual language learners. This list is provided for your information and does not imply endorsement of these materials.

Online Resources

Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS). "Technical Reports on Best Practices for Serving Young Children Who Are Dual Language Learners with Special Needs." 

OSEP. English to Spanish Translation Glossary.

The Special Edge. "Why It Matters. What is Disproportionate Representation?" Autumn 2006, pp: 12-13.  [PDF, 348.1KB].

Understanding the Impact of Language Differences on Classroom Behavior. Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning. [PDF, 248.2KB].


Artiles, Alfredo J. and Alba A. Ortiz, eds. "English Language Learners with Special Needs: Identification, Assessment, and Instruction." Center for Applied Linguistics, 2002.

Hamayan, E., B. Marler, C. Sanchez-Lopez, and J. Damico. "Special Education Considerations for English Language Learners: Delivering a Continuum of Services." Philadelphia, PA: Caslon Publishing, 2007.

Kohnert, Kathryn, K. Kohnert, A. Derr, & In B. Goldstein, eds. "Bilingual Language Development and Disorders in Spanish-English Speakers," in Language Intervention with Bilingual Children. Baltimore: Brookes, 2004: pp. 315-343.

Paradis, J., Genesee, F., & Crago, M.B.  Dual Language Development and Disorders:  A Handbook on Bilingualism and Second Language Learning  2nd ed, Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes, 2010. 

Be sure to visit the Disabilities section for more information.

Dual Language Learners and Families with Disabilities. Identification: Supplementary Materials. HHS/ACF/OHS. 2011. English.

Last Reviewed: August 2011

Last Updated: November 13, 2014