Perceptual Infant

Domain: Perceptual, Motor, and Physical Development

Sub-Domain: Perception

Goal IT-PMP 1. Child uses perceptual information to understand objects, experiences, and interactions.

Developmental Progression   Indicators
Birth to 9 Months 8 to 18 Months 16 to 36 Months   By 36 Months
Uses perceptual information to organize basic understanding of objects when given opportunities to observe, handle, and use objects, including recognizing differences in texture and how things feel. Uses perceptual information about properties of objects in matching and associating them with each other through play and interaction with an adult, such as using a play bottle to feed a baby doll. Observes others making things happen to understand the cause and effect relationship of intention and action, such as seeing an adult prepare to go outside and then going to get their own jacket.  
  • Combines information gained through the senses to understand objects, experiences, and interactions.
  • Adjusts ways of interacting with materials based on sensory and perceptual information, such as pressing harder on clay than on play dough to make something.
  • Modifies responses in social situations based on perceptual information, especially when meeting new people, such as hiding their face from an unfamiliar person.

Goal IT-PMP 2. Child uses perceptual information in directing own actions, experiences, and interactions.

Developmental Progression   Indicators
Birth to 9 Months 8 to 18 Months 16 to 36 Months   By 36 Months
Adjusts balance and movement with the changing size and proportion of own body in response to opportunities in the environment. Uses depth perception, scans for obstacles, and makes a plan on how to move based on that information while learning to crawl, walk, or move in another way. Coordinates perceptual information and motor actions to participate in play and daily routines, such as singing songs with hand motions or practicing self-care skills.  
  • Adjusts walking or running to the type of surface, such as a rocky, sandy, or slippery surface.
  • Handles or explores objects or materials in different ways depending on perceptual information about the objects or materials, such as fragile, messy, or sticky properties.

Sub-Domain: Gross Motor

Goal IT-PMP 3. Child demonstrates effective and efficient use of large muscles for movement and position.

Developmental Progression   Indicators
Birth to 9 Months 8 to 18 Months 16 to 36 Months   By 36 Months
Explores new body positions and movements, such as rolling over, sitting, crawling, hitting, or kicking at objects to achieve goals. Moves from crawling to cruising to walking, learning new muscle coordination for each new skill, and how to manage changing ground surfaces. Gains control of a variety of postures and movements including stooping, going from sitting to standing, running, and jumping.  
  • Coordinates movements and actions for a purpose.
  • Walks and runs, adjusting speed or direction depending on the situation.

Goal IT-PMP 4. Child demonstrates effective and efficient use of large muscles to explore the environment.

Developmental Progression   Indicators
Birth to 9 Months 8 to 18 Months 16 to 36 Months   By 36 Months
Uses each new posture (raising head, rolling onto back, sitting) to learn new ways to explore the environment. For example, sits up to be able to reach for or hold objects. Uses body position, balance, and especially movement to explore and examine materials, activities, and spaces. Uses a variety of increasingly complex movements, body positions, and postures to participate in active and quiet, indoor and outdoor play.  
  • Explores environments using motor skills, such as throwing, kicking, jumping, climbing, carrying, and running.
  • Experiments with different ways of moving the body, such as dancing around the room.

Goal IT-PMP 5. Child uses sensory information and body awareness to understand how their body relates to the environment.

Developmental Progression   Indicators
Birth to 9 Months 8 to 18 Months 16 to 36 Months   By 36 Months
Responds to sounds and sights in the environment by orienting head or body to understand the information in the event. For example, a young infant will turn towards an adult and re-position their body to be picked up. Shows awareness as an accomplished crawler or walker of new challenges or dangers in the environment, such as steep inclines or drop-offs. Shows understanding of what size openings are needed for their body to move through. Learns about body size, such as doll clothes won't fit on a child's body or a child's body won't fit on dollhouse furniture.  
  • Maintains balance and posture while seated and concentrating, such as working with clay, blocks, or markers or looking at a book.
  • Adjusts position of body to fit through or into small spaces.

Sub-Domain: Fine Motor

Goal IT-PMP 6. Child coordinates hand and eye movements to perform actions.

Developmental Progression   Indicators
Birth to 9 Months 8 to 18 Months 16 to 36 Months   By 36 Months
Coordinates hands and eyes when reaching for and holding stable or moving objects. Uses hand-eye coordination for more complex actions, such as releasing objects into a container, or stacking cups, rings, or blocks, or picking up pieces of food one by one. Uses hand-eye coordination when participating in routines, play, and activities, such as putting on a mitten, painting at an easel, putting pieces of a puzzle together, or folding paper.  
  • Uses hand-eye coordination to manipulate objects and materials such as completing puzzles or threading beads with large holes.
  • Uses hand-eye coordination in handling books, such as turning pages, pointing to a picture, or looking for favorite page.

Goal IT-PMP 7. Child uses hands for exploration, play, and daily routines.

Developmental Progression   Indicators
Birth to 9 Months 8 to 18 Months 16 to 36 Months   By 36 Months
Uses single actions to explore shape, size, texture, or weight of objects, such as turning an object over or around, or dropping or pushing away an object. Explores properties of objects and materials by using various hand actions, such as pulling at them, picking them up to examine them, pointing to learn their names, turning knobs on objects, or turning pages in a board book. Plans ways to use hands for various activities, such as stacking, building, connecting, drawing, painting, and doing self-care skills or routines.  
  • Uses hands efficiently for a variety of actions or activities, such as building with blocks, wiping up a spill, or feeding self.
  • Coordinates use of both hands to put things together, such as connecting blocks or linking toys.

Goal IT-PMP 8. Child adjusts reach and grasp to use tools.

Developmental Progression   Indicators
Birth to 9 Months 8 to 18 Months 16 to 36 Months   By 36 Months
Uses increasingly refined grasps, matching the grasp to the task, such as using an index finger and thumb to pick up pieces of cereal or using the whole hand to bang objects together. Extends reach by using simple tools, such as a pull string, stick, or rake to pull a distant object closer. Adjusts grasp to use different tools for different purposes, such as a spoon, paintbrush, or marker.  
  • Adjusts grasp with ease to new tools and materials.
  • Uses pincer grasp with thumb and fingers to manipulate small objects or handle tools, such as stringing small beads.
  • Uses hand tools in a variety of ways, such as a rolling pin with clay or play dough, or a toy shovel with sand.

Sub-Domain: Health, Safety, and Nutrition

Goal IT-PMP 9. Child demonstrates healthy behaviors with increasing independence as part of everyday routines.

Developmental Progression   Indicators
Birth to 9 Months 8 to 18 Months 16 to 36 Months   By 36 Months
Emerging Anticipates and cooperates in daily routines, such as washing hands, blowing nose, or holding a toothbrush with assistance from adults. Participates in healthy care routines with more independence, such as washing hands, blowing nose, brushing teeth, or drinking from a cup.  
  • Shows increasing independence in self-care routines with guidance from adults.
  • Puts on or takes off some articles of clothing, such as shoes, socks, coat, or hat.

Goal IT-PMP 10. Child uses safe behaviors with support from adults.

Developmental Progression   Indicators
Birth to 9 Months 8 to 18 Months 16 to 36 Months   By 36 Months
Emerging Emerging Accepts adult guidance, support, and protection when encountering unsafe situations. Learns some differences between safe and unsafe play behaviors, such as not to stand on chairs or tables, or not to put small objects in mouth.  
  • Cooperates with adults when in unsafe situations, such as taking an adult's hand to cross a street or being cautious around an unfamiliar dog.
  • Shows some understanding of safe and unsafe behaviors, such as not touching a hot stove.

Goal IT-PMP 11. Child demonstrates increasing interest in engaging in healthy eating habits and making nutritious food choices.

Developmental Progression   Indicators
Birth to 9 Months 8 to 18 Months 16 to 36 Months   By 36 Months
Emerging Shows interest in new foods that are offered. Shows willingness to try new nutritious foods when offered on multiple occasions. Sometimes makes nutritious choices about which foods to eat when offered several choices, with support from an adult.  
  • Expresses preferences about foods, specifically likes or dislikes, sometimes based on whether the food is nutritious.
  • Sometimes makes nutritious choices with support from an adult.
  • Communicates to adults when hungry, thirsty, or has had enough to eat.

Topic:School Readiness

Resource Type: Article

National Centers:

Program Type:

Program Option:

Age Group:

Audience:

Collection: