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Perceptual Preschool

Domain: Perceptual, Motor, and Physical Development

Sub-Domain: Gross Motor

Goal P-PMP 1. Child demonstrates control, strength, and coordination of large muscles.

Developmental Progression   Indicators
36 to 48 Months 48 to 60 Months   By 60 Months
Balances, such as on one leg or a beam, for short periods with some assistance. Performs some skills, such as jumping for height and hopping, but these skills may not be consistently demonstrated. Engages in physical activity that requires strength and stamina for at least brief periods. Balances, such as on one leg or on a beam, for longer periods of time both when standing still and when moving from one position to another. Demonstrates more coordinated movement when engaging in skills, such as jumping for height and distance, hopping, and running. Engages in more complex movements, such as riding a tricycle, with ease. Engages in physical activities of increasing levels of intensity for sustained periods of time.  
  • Demonstrates balance in large-muscle movement, such as walking on a log without falling or balancing on one leg.
  • Performs activities that combine and coordinate large muscle movements, including swinging on a swing, climbing a ladder, or dancing to music.
  • Demonstrates strength and stamina that allow for participation in a range of physical activities, such as running around playing tag.

Goal P-PMP 2. Child uses perceptual information to guide motions and interactions with objects and other people.

Developmental Progression   Indicators
36 to 48 Months 48 to 60 Months   By 60 Months
Somewhat aware of own body, space, and relationship to other objects. May have difficulty consistently coordinating motions and interactions with objects and other people. Shows increasing awareness of body, space, and relationship to other objects in ways that allow for more coordinated movements, actions, and interactions with others.  
  • Demonstrates awareness of own body and other people's space during interactions.
  • Moves body in relation to objects to effectively perform tasks, such as moving body in position to kick a ball.
  • When asked, can move own body in front of, to the side, or behind something or someone else, such as getting in line with other children.
  • Changes directions when moving with little difficulty.
child playing outsideSome preschoolers may have Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) that include goals for gross motor development. Working with specialists, adults can design experiences, such as an obstacle course in the outdoor play area, that will promote strong child outcomes for all children.

Sub-Domain: Fine Motor

Goal P-PMP 3. Child demonstrates increasing control, strength, and coordination of small muscles.

Developmental Progression   Indicators
36 to 48 Months 48 to 60 Months   By 60 Months
Performs simple hand-eye tasks, such as drawing simple shapes like circles and cutting paper with scissors. May demonstrate limited precision and control in more complex tasks. Performs tasks that require more complex hand-eye coordination, such as cutting out shapes and drawing letter-like forms, with moderate levels of precision and control.  
  • Easily coordinates hand and eye movements to carry out tasks, such as working on puzzles or stringing beads together.
  • Uses a pincer grip to hold and manipulate tools for writing, drawing, and painting.
  • Uses coordinated movements to complete complex tasks, such as cutting along a line, pouring, or buttoning.
girl paintingPreschoolers exhibit complex fine motor coordination when using tools to complete tasks.

Sub-Domain: Health, Safety, and Nutrition

Goal P-PMP 4. Child demonstrates personal hygiene and self-care skills.

Developmental Progression   Indicators
36 to 48 Months 48 to 60 Months   By 60 Months
Shows an awareness of personal hygiene and self-care skills, such as telling an adult it is important to wash hands before eating. May not complete or exhibit these skills regularly without adult guidance and supervision. Begins to take more responsibility for personal hygiene and self-care skills. Sometimes completes them without adult prompting.  
  • Washes hands with soap and water. Knows to do this before eating, after using the bathroom, or after blowing nose.
  • Demonstrates increasing ability to take responsibility for participating in personal self-care skills, such as brushing teeth or getting dressed.

Goal P-PMP 5. Child develops knowledge and skills that help promote nutritious food choices and eating habits.

Developmental Progression   Indicators
36 to 48 Months 48 to 60 Months   By 60 Months
Demonstrates a basic knowledge of the role of foods and nutrition in healthy development. Often requires adult guidance and supervision to make healthy eating choices. Demonstrates an increasing understanding of the ways in which foods and nutrition help the body grow and be healthy. Makes healthy eating choices both independently and with support.  
  • Identifies a variety of healthy and unhealthy foods.
  • Demonstrates basic understanding that eating a variety of foods helps the body grow and be healthy.
  • Moderates food consumption based on awareness of own hunger and fullness.

Goal P-PMP 6. Child demonstrates knowledge of personal safety practices and routines.

Developmental Progression   Indicators
36 to 48 Months 48 to 60 Months   By 60 Months
Shows awareness of a growing number of personal safety practices and routines. Looks to adults for support in enacting these. Exhibits increasing independence in following basic personal safety practices and routines. Follows adult guidance around more complex practices.  
  • Identifies, avoids, and alerts others to danger, such as keeping a safe distance from swings.
  • Identifies and follows basic safety rules with adult guidance and support, such as transportation and street safety practices.
children brushing their teethPreschoolers show increasing responsibility for personal hygiene and exhibit greater coordination needed for self-care skills.

Topic:School Readiness

Resource Type: Article

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